The Journal of Agriculture and Development

●The Journal of Agriculture and Development (JAD) is an international and peer reviewed journal publishing novel and significant research in a wide range of topics such as Agribusiness and Economics, Agricultural Mechanics, Agronomy and Forestry Sciences, Animal Sciences, Aquaculture and Fisheries, Biotechnology, Enviromental and Natural Resources, Food Science and Technology, and Veterinary Medicine. The JAD is an open access journal that includes primary research, review articles, short communications, and special invited papers. We also publish special issues which focus on the current emerging topics in agricultural sciences.

●The JAD (the formerly named Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology) is published in 6 issues per year (4 issues in Vietnamese with English abstracts and 2 issues in English). The journal has published over 19 volumes since 2002.

●Period of publication: Issue 1 (FEB), Issue 2 (APR), Issue 3 (JUN), Issue 4 (AUG), Issue 5 (OCT), Issue 6 (DEC)

●Publisher: Nong Lam University, HCMC (NLU)

Effects of nitrogen and potassium rates on growth and yield of red turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) on the gray soil in Ho Chi Minh City

Trang T. H. Nguyen, Binh V. Tran, Tri D. Q. Phan, Linh D. Dinh, Son T. T. Le, Thao X. Nguyen, Quang T. Le, Truong V. Nguyen, & Thinh V. Tran
Electronic version: 31 Dec 2022 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.1.06.2022
Abstract | pdf (269.5K)


The objective of this study was to determine the appropriate rates of nitrogen and potassium fertilizers for growth, yield and economic efficiency of red turmeric cultivated on the gray soil in Ho Chi Minh City. The field experiment was conducted at the Agronomy Research Station in Nong Lam University, Ho Chi Minh City from December 2020 to October 2021. The experiment was laid out in a split-plot design with three replicates. The main plots included four nitrogen rates 60, 90 (control), 120 and 150 kg N/ha. The subplots included four potassium rates 90, 120 (control), 150, and 180 kg K2O/ha. All treatments were basally applied with 500 kg lime, 10 tons cow manure and 60 kg P2O5/ha. The results showed that growth attributes and yield were significantly affected by the rates of nitrogen and potassium. Red turmeric applied with 150 kg N/ha combined with 180 kg K2O/ha obtained the outstanding results in growth, yield and profit, such as the plant height of 43.0 cm, stem diameter of 19.7 mm, a number of leaves of 8.6 (180 DAP), soil plant analysis development index of 42.1 (120 DAP), actual fresh yield of 33.9 tons/ha, the profit of VND 370.17 million/ha and the benefit-cost ratio of 2.68.

Effects of post-hatch feeding time and pre-starter feeds on growth performance and relative weight of visceral organs in slow-growing chickens

Phung T. K. Bui, Tran P. U. Cao, Khang N. Duong, & Tung M. Che
Electronic version: 31 Dec 2022 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.2.06.2022
Abstract | pdf (254.1K)


The objective of the experiment was to evaluate effects of post-hatch feeding time and two different pre-starter diets on growth performance and relative weight of visceral organs and yolk sac in slow-growing chickens. A total of 480 one-day-old chicks (Luong Phuong breed) were randomly assigned into 4 treatment groups in a completely randomized design of 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with 10 chicks per pen. The two factors consisted of post-hatch feeding time (immediate access to feed after hatching (0 h) and delayed access to feed for 30 h after hatching) and pre-starters (Vi-start and Commercial 1). Birds were fed 2 different pre-starter diets from 0 to 7 days of age, and then all birds were fed the same commercial diets from 8 to 56 days of age. The results showed that during 0 - 7 days of age, chicks that were not fed for 30 h after hatch  were significantly lower in body weight, average daily feed intake, average daily gain and feed efficiency (FE) than those fed immediately right after hatch (P < 0.05). In this period, chicks fed Vi-start had better growth performance and FE than those fed Commercial 1. Over a 56-d study, there were no main effects of post-hatch feeding time or pre-starter feed on growth performance of chickens (P > 0.05). However, the post-hatch feeding time × pre-starter feed interaction was significant for final BW at 56 days of age (P = 0.01), suggesting that within commercial feed,  delayed access to feed for 30 h increased the final BW of chickens as compared with immediate access to feed after hatch. In brief, Vi-start fed to chicks improved the growth performance of chicks during the first week after hatch. Feeding pre-starter feeds to chicks immediately right after hatch would be beneficial.

Effects of dietary seaweed supplementation on milk productivity, milk quality and health of dairy cows

Hai T. Nguyen, Nhan T. M. Nguyen, Phuong H. Ngo, & Chanh V. Nguyen
Electronic version: 31 Dec 2022 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.3.06.2022
Abstract | pdf (296.8K)


The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of dietary supplementation of a seaweed-originated product (SOP) on milk productivity, milk quality and health of milking cows under Vietnam weather conditions at the dairy farm of One Member Dairy and Beef Joint Stock Company HCMC, Vietnam from October 2019 to February 2020. A total of 40 Holstein Friesian crossbred cows were randomly allotted into 2 treatments in a randomized complete block design. The 2 dietary treatments included (1) cows fed a basal ration without SOP supplementation (control) and (2) control plus 70 g SOP/cow per day (about 0.35% dry matter intake/day). Parity, days in milk, body weight, and milk yield of cows in both treatments were almost equal (P > 0.05). The results showed that the average milk yield of cows over the experimental period was not different between the two treatments (P > 0.05), but the lactation stability curve was better in SOP group. The SOP supplementation also did not improve milk quality indicators (fat, protein, solids not fat, lactose, somatic cell count) as compared with the control (P > 0.05). The blood ketone level of cows in the control group was higher than that of cows in the SOP group (P < 0.05), although there were no differences in the blood levels of AST, ALT, protein, glucose, cholesterol, cortisol (P > 0.05). The SOP supplementation did not affect BW, body condition score, and locomotion score as well as the prevalences of lameness and digestive diseases (P > 0.05). Briefly, these results suggest that the dietary SOP addition of 70 g/cow per day appears not to improve milk productivity, milk quality and health of milking cows.

Experimental Toxocara canis infection in chickens

Mai T. Duong, Han N. N. Vu, Giang T. Tran, & Mai C. Duong
Electronic version: 31 Dec 2022 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.4.06.2022
Abstract | pdf (619.6K)


The objective of this study was to determine the development phases of Toxocara canis eggs outside the host and the migration of larvae in the internal organs of chickens infected by ingestion of embryonated T. canis eggs. Under a microscope observation of T. canis eggs which were incubated in a petri dish containing 5 mL of distilled water at 30 – 33oC with regularly aerated, this study showed the development of T. canis egg through various stages, including one cell, two cells, three cells, four cells, early morula, late morula, blastula, gastrula, tadpole, pre-larva, embryonated larva. In addition, it took approximately 9 days for T. canis eggs to hatch and for infective larvae to develop at 30 - 33oC. A total of 50 chickens were randomly assigned to 3 groups including group I (10 chicks/group) was served as control group without T. canis eggs inoculation; two treatment groups II and III (20 chicks/group) were orally inoculated with 500 or 1000 T. canis eggs, respectively. On 1, 3, 6, 15 and 30 days post inoculation (dpi), two chickens/control group and 4 chickens/treatment group were necropsied. The results showed that the percentage of larvae recovered varied from 14.00 to 33.93% and 13.07 to 32.00% in treatment groups II and III, respectively. After 1, 3, 6, and 30 dpi, the significant differences about the number of larvae recovered in two treatment groups were found (P < 0.05). In both treatment groups, the percentage of larvae recovered from livers was higher than that in lung tissue. For 6 dpi, small white foci on the liver’s surface were seen. Interstitial pneumonia, petechial hemorrhages, dark or gray inflammatory nodules in the lung tissue and the atelectatic area were observed. Histopathology examination revealed infiltrations of leukocytes and eosinophil scattered in the liver and lung tissue.

Survey of ornamental plants with medicinal values at The Saigon Zoo and Botanical Garden in Ho Chi Minh City

Thanh T. Nguyen, & The T. M. Ngo
Electronic version: 31 Dec 2022 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.7.06.2022
Abstract | pdf (266.8K)


This study investigated the diversity of ornamental plants with medicinal values at the Saigon Zoo and Botanical Garden in Ho Chi Minh City. The research was conducted through a comprehensive survey, including questionnaires, observation, taking pictures and notes on each sample. The study identified 223 species of ornamental plants, of which species with medicinal values accounted for 55.6% (124 species). Among the identified families, the Fabaceae and the Zingiberaceae were the most popular families and each had 7 species detected. We  also categorized ornamental plants with medicinal values according to different approaches, including tree morphology, layout in the landscape, shade tolerance and light-loving ability, and medicinal uses for application in the landscaping of townhouses and apartments. 
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    Electronic version: 28 Jun 2018 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.1.03.2018
    Abstract | PDF (260.1K)


    Vietnamese pangasius prices have become more volatile over the past decade exposing the business to risk and uncertainty. This study explored Vietnamese pangasius farmers’ perceptions about the sources of price risk and the effectiveness of price risk management strategies through Likert scales. The relationships between farm and farmer socioeconomic characteristics and their perceptions were also examined by using Chi-square analysis. Data were obtained through a structured survey with 110 farmers in three provinces of An Giang, Can Tho, and Dong Thap. Results suggested that pangasius farmers mostly concerned the instability of input prices, the volume of input supply, the instability of output prices, and the legislation of sales contracts between farmers and processors. We further found that price risk management strategies were not perceived as less effective measures to mitigate the price risk. Gender, farmers’ experience, farm size, crop period, farm types, and access to credit are positively related to the farmers’ perceptions. Findings on the price risk perceptions and management strategies are useful to support public and private of price risk management decision towards increasing the sustainability of pangasius production.
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    Electronic version: 28 Jun 2018 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.10.03.2018
    Abstract | PDF (260.1K)


    Acerola fruit is known to have a high vitamin C concentration. Polyphenolics are also natural oxidants occurring in plants. Understanding changes of these components during storage conditions and processing steps become important. Results of this research showed that there was significant difference in vitamin C and total polyphenolic concentration and three popular varieties of acerola fruits from Tien Giang province. Concentrations of both vitamin C and polyphenolics reduced rapidly during storage at room temperature. After three days, vitamin C reduced about 40% whereas total polyphenolics reduced about 70%. The losses at refrigerated temperature after 3 days were less than 15% and less than 30%, for vitamin C and total polyphenolics, respectively. Frozen storage of the fruit maintained quite well vitamin C and polyphenolics. Acerola pomace juice was concentrated before spray drying and, at the same vacuum pressure, temperatures influenced significantly the retention of vitamin C and total polyphenolics. Optimization of spray drying conditioners including inlet hot air temperatures and added ratio of maltodextrin (drying carrier) was also carried out to obtain high recovery of dry matter, total polyphenolics and vitamin C.
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    Electronic version: 30 Jun 2020 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.1.03.2020
    Abstract | PDF (649.9K)


    In today’s increasing competitive global market, large and successful manufacturing enterprises have implemented the system of key performance indicators (KPIs) which drives the performance toward the business objectives; however, this is not the case for small-medium sized enterprises (SMEs) which have been increasingly important for any national economy, especially in manufacturing sector. Although the KPIs can ideally be constructed in accordance with the concept of SMART (Specific, Measureable, Attainable, Realistic, Time-related) or balanced scorecard, but SMEs that are lack of limited resources and expertise could rarely afford to build such systems with the appropriate definition and measurement of KPIs. Therefore, the paper aimed to provide systematically the system of KPIs adaptable to SMEs, to prioritize the importance of each proposed KPI with the application of a fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP), and to instruct the comprehensive deployment of the SMEs’ manufacturing performance system.
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    Electronic version: 30 Jun 2020 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.3.03.2020
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    Electronic version: 27 Dec 2019 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.6.06.2019
    Abstract | PDF (1.6M)


    Phenolic compounds are secondary metabolites mainly responsible for different pharmacological activities of the plant extracts. In this study, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) variables were optimized for the extraction of the phenolic compounds from Chromolaena odorata (C. odorata) by using a central composite design (CCD) of response surface methodology (RSM). The optimized conditions were at 62oC for 3 min with solvent to feed ratio of 14:1 (mL/g) and ethanol concentration of 50% (v/v). The highest yield of total phenolic compounds was 75.76 mgGAE/g. Ethanol extract clearly showed antifungal activity through antifungal index. The antifungal effect Phytophthora capsici, Fusarium oxysporum and Colletotrichum siamese were 79.07%, 78.66% and 78.42%, in 0.5% of ethanol extract, respectively.