The Journal of Agriculture and Development

●The Journal of Agriculture and Development (JAD) is a peer reviewed journal publishing novel and significant research in a wide range of topics such as Agribusiness and Economics, Agricultural Mechanics, Agronomy and Forestry Sciences, Animal Sciences, Aquaculture and Fisheries, Biotechnology, Environmental and Natural Resources, Food Science and Technology, and Veterinary Medicine. The JAD is an open access journal that includes primary research, review articles, short communications, and special invited papers. We also publish special issues which focus on the current emerging topics in agricultural sciences.

●The JAD (the formerly named Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology) is published in 6 issues per year (4 issues in Vietnamese with English abstracts and 2 issues in English). The journal has published over 19 volumes since 2002. From 06/2018, the Journal started to publish online issues in two languages (English and Vietnamese).

●Period of publication: Issue 1 (FEB), Issue 2 (APR), Issue 3 (JUN, English), Issue 4 (AUG), Issue 5 (OCT), Issue 6 (DEC, English)

●The Journal's number of articles per issue ranges from 6 to 12.

●Publisher: Nong Lam University, HCMC (NLU)

Identification of sanchi samples based on DNA barcodes

Dong T. Pham, & Phong V. Nguyen
Electronic version: 21 Jun 2024 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.3.01.2024
Abstract | PDF (517K)


For centuries, sanchi has been used in traditional medicine in East Asian countries to promote health and fitness. To identify and distinguish sanchi from adulterants, this study was conducted to determine the sequence of four DNA barcodes. The PCR products of the four barcodes were 330 bp (rbcL), 822 bp (matK), 484 bp (trnH-psbA), and 438 bp (ITS1). Genetic relationship analysis showed that the four DNA barcode regions had high similarity with other Panax species. Three barcodes, matK, trnH-psbA, and ITS1, confirmed that the studied samples belonged to Panax notoginseng, distinguished from Panax pseudoginseng, and can be used to identify Panax notoginseng.

Evaluating the growth performance of all male sex reversal and mixed ser tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) cultured in earthen ponds in Binh Phuo province, Vietnam

Loi N. Nguyen, Dang H. Nguyen, Nam B. Nguyen, Nhung T. H. Nguyen, & Hien T. Nguyen
Electronic version: 21 Jun 2024 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.3.04.2024
Abstract | PDF (203.9K)


The study was conducted to evaluate the growth performance, survival rate and yield of all male sex reversed and mixed sex Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) cultured in earthen ponds for 180 days. The reversed sex and mixed sex fingerlings (mean weight 7.43 ± 0.35 g) was randomly stocked in six earthen ponds (1,000 m2/pond). The stocking density maintained was 5 fish/m2. The stocked fish were fed a commercial pellet feed containing 35% crude protein. The feeding rate was adjusted according the size of fish, 5% at the beginning to 3% at harvest. Water environment parameters including dissolved oxygen (DO) (4.3 ± 0.8 mg/L), temperature (30 ± 0.7°C), NH3 (0.18 ± 0.2 mg/L), and pH (6.9 ± 0.5) were always within the appropriate range for the normal growth and development of tilapia. The growth rate of sex reversed tilapia was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that of mixed tilapia throughout the experiment. The harvest weight and length of reversed sex tilapia were 410.5 ± 5.15 g and 25.48 ± 0.48 cm, respectively, and were significantly higher than that of mixed sex tilapia (P < 0.05). The survival rates and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of mono and mixed sex were 90.1% and 89.9%, respectively, but no significant differences were observed (P > 0.05). The relationship of fish lengths and weights expressed by power function revealed that the slope of the length weight regression lines was normal for reversed sex (2.72) and mixed sex Tilapia (2.93) with the high correlation coefficient (> 0.9). The findings of this study demonstrate that reversed sex tilapia has better growth performance compared to mixed sex tilapia. Therefore, reversed sex fingerlings should be used in commercial farming to increase tilapia production.

Investigation of small-scale farming status of Tire track eel (Mastacembelus favus) in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

Nhi H. Y. Nguyen, Hang T. T. Nguyen, Hanh T. B. Nguyen, Van T. T. Phan, Thang D. Tran, Man V. M. Ho, & Lan T. Trinh
Electronic version: 21 Jun 2024 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.3.02.2024
Abstract | PDF (780.2K)


Tire track eel (Mastacembelus favus) is an economically important freshwater fish in the Mekong Delta. However, there is a lack of academic information about the current farming status, feed, and feeding related to this species in the region. Therefore, a field survey of small scale farming of tire track eel was conducted in An Giang, Dong Thap, Hau Giang and Kien Giang provinces of Vietnam. The objective of the survey was to determine the current farming practices information on households, especially the feed and feeding status of tire track eel in order to improve and develop a suitable feed for this fish in the future. The results showed that most of the small-scale farmers cultured fish in earthen ponds with or without plastic liners. Tire track eels were fed with feeds of other species and typically fed 3 - 5 times/d during the fingerling stage, and twice per day during the grow-out period. In terms of feed ingredients, crude protein contents in the feeds were 39.5 - 45.5% while crude lipid contents were 7.7 - 12.7%. Feed conversion ratios of tire track eels were 2 - 5. The farming periods of fish were 11.8 - 14 months when the fish reached the harvesting sizes of 318.2 - 421.4 g/fish, with the survival rates of 40 - 80%. It took 2.5 months to cultivate the fingerling stage (around 3 g/fish) from the fry with the survival rate of 55.7%. It was reported that this species was raised with a simple technique and got less illness compared to other fish species. However, the main reason of fish deaths during farming period related to management factors such as poor water quality due to decomposition of uneaten feed in water or lacks of dissolved oxygen due to high stocking density or power supply failures.

Influence of the supplementation of macadamia oil cake powder on nutritional and sensory qualities of bread

Chuyen V. Hoang, & Duy L. A. Do
Electronic version: 21 Jun 2024 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.3.08.2024
Abstract | PDF (253.5K)


Although macadamia oil cake (MOC) is a by-product of macadamia oil processing, this material still has high nutritional value, making it a promising ingredient for food products. This study aimed to investigate effects of the MOC supplementation at different ratios on physical properties, nutritional composition and sensory quality of bread. The results show that the addition of MOC led to increases in protein, ash and fat content, while carbohydrate content was lower in the supplemented bread. The specific volume and springiness of the bread were significantly affected by the MOC supplementation while no significant change in hardness and spread ratio was observed (P < 0.05). For the sensory quality of fortified bread, the differences in color, flavor, texture and overall acceptability among 4 levels of MOC addition were insignificant, except for the taste score. Microbiological analyses also confirmed that the MOC supplemented bread product met microbial safety standards. The obtained results suggest that the bread sample with 20% MOC addition (9.35 g protein, 12.32 g fat, 46.13 g carbohydrate, 4.29 g dietary fiber and 332.77 kcal per 100 g) should be selected for developing high nutritional bread product.

Comparison of the physicochemical properties and biological compounds of acerola fruit varieties grown in Vietnam through the various maturation stages

Diep T. N. Duong, Nhi X. Ngo, & Binh Q. Hoang
Electronic version: 21 Jun 2024 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.3.07.2024
Abstract | PDF (365.3K)


The objective of the present study was to find the changes in physicochemical properties, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant activity of acerola fruits under different cultivars (i.e., Brazilian acerola (Malpighia emarginata D.C) and sour acerola (Malpighia glabra L.)) and maturation stages (unripe, half-ripe, and ripe). For any species, the study found an increase in total soluble solid and a* value, whereas there was a decrease in the content of bioactive compounds (i.e., polyphenols, flavonoids, vitamin C), total acidity, and antioxidant activity, which followed the maturation development of fruits. Briefly, the unripe acerola fruits (Brazillan cultivar) were an excellent source of vitamin C (32.97 mg/g) and phenolic content (25.62 mg GAE/g).
Most Read
  • Case report of brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome in brachycephalic dogs from Veterinary Specialist Service Hospital, Australia
    Electronic version: 30 Jun 2020 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.5.03.2020
    Abstract | PDF (260.1K)


    This report aimed to study symptoms and causes of brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome (BOAS) in brachycephalic dogs and to determine appropriate surgical procedures for these symptoms by reviewing literatures and examining four case studies conducted at Veterinary Specialist Service Hospital, Underwood, Queensland, Australia. The cases included a 6-year 3-month old Staffordshire Bull Terrier (case 1), a 1-year 5-month old French Bulldog (case 2), an 8-month old French Bulldog (case 3), and an 8-year 8-month Pug (case 4). Those dogs went to the Veterinary Specialist Service in a worsen state of respiratory problems, including the upper respiratory noise (case 1, 2, 3), decrease in exercise tolerance, respiratory struggling (case 1, 3), regurgitation (case 1), coughing, sleeping difficulty, respiratory stridor (case 2), nasal discharge, dyspnea, bloating, and tachypnea (case 4). Examinations revealed the causes including the elongated soft palate (case 1, 2, 3, 4), stenotic nostrils (case 2, 3, 4), tonsils inflammation (case 3) and everted laryngeal saccules (case 4). After surgery, the dogs were recovered in intensive care unit within 2 days, and then discharged. Scheduled re-examination one week later showed improvement in the respiratory health in all cases. Overall, major complications occur in 10\% of cases; however, this surgery is vital and can be totally applied in Vietnam where brachycephalic dogs have become a popular companion.
  • The use of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) in domestic wastewater treatment
    Electronic version: 28 Jun 2018 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.7.03.2018
    Abstract | PDF (260.1K)


    The main objective of this study was to examine the efficacy and capacity of using hydroponic systems in municipal  pollutant removal at household scale. Three pilot scaled hydroponic systems [dimensionfor each system: 4.5 m (L) x Φ 114 mm] were installed to investigate the optimal age of vegetable, planting density and retention time for household wastewater treatment, respectively. Water spinach (Ipomoeaaquatica) planted in 27 plastic cups throughout 4.5-m-length and 114- mm-diameter uPVC pipes filled with wastewater was employed as the treating agent of pollutants. The averaged influent contained proximately 32.5 mg/L suspended solids (SS), 76.0 mg/L biological oxygen demand (BOD5), 220.5 mg/L chemical oxygen demand (COD), 26mg/L NH4+, 5.0 mg/L NO3−, and 8.5 mg/L PO43− at pH 7.3. Results showed that a designed system consisting of 10 plants of 15-day-old water spinach pre-planted in baked clay in each cup was capable oftreating 30 L of domestic wastewater meeting the current municipal wastewater discharge standards in Vietnam (column A standards of QCVN 14:2008/BTNMT) after 4 days of wastewater retention time. Ifoperated under conditions of the above parameters, the pilot-plant hydroponic system can achieve the removal of 65% SS, 82% BOD5, 74% COD, 90% NH4+, 30% NO3− and 86% PO43−. The result of this studyhas provided an applicable domestic wastewater treatment system ecofriendly and suitable for small and medium household areas.
  • Field assessment of the efficacy of M.B., LIBDV and Winterfield 2512 strain vaccines against infectious bursal disease in chickens
    Electronic version: 31 Dec 2018 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.3.06.2018
    Abstract | PDF (260.1K)


    Live virus vaccines are very important parts of the prevention of Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD) in chickens. However, the successful IBD vaccination depends on IBD field pressure, vaccination technique, the immune status of the chicken, and especially IBDV strains used in the vaccines which are able to break through a higher level of maternal-derived antibodies (MDA). The objective of this field study was to compare the efficacy of a new vaccine based on M.B. strain to other commercial vaccines (LIBDV and winterfiled 2512) in terms of speed of antibody immune response and interference to Newcastle Disease (ND) vaccination. Six houses of broilers, each with 15,000 to 16,000 chickens, were divided into two groups: (1) vaccinated with M.B. strain (group A) and (2) vaccinated with LIBDV or 2512 strains (group B). Blood samples were collected prior to the 1st IBD vaccination, and at 21, 28 and 35 days of age for IBD and ND antibodies. Comparison of lesion scores and uniformity of the bursa of Fabricius (BF) at 28 and 35 days of age was carried out. Results showed that both groups had good immune responses, but group A showed significantly higher IBD antibody titers at 28 and 35 days of age. Antibody titers for ND and histopathological lesion scores of the BF were not significantly different between the 2 groups. The BF in group A was more uniform and had fewer lesions when compared with that in group B. In conclusion, the IBD vaccine with an M.B. strain can provide better immunological efficacy than LIBDV and 2512 strains.
  • Changes of total polyphenolics and vitamin C in acerola during storage and spray drying process
    Electronic version: 28 Jun 2018 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.10.03.2018
    Abstract | PDF (260.1K)


    Acerola fruit is known to have a high vitamin C concentration. Polyphenolics are also natural oxidants occurring in plants. Understanding changes of these components during storage conditions and processing steps become important. Results of this research showed that there was significant difference in vitamin C and total polyphenolic concentration and three popular varieties of acerola fruits from Tien Giang province. Concentrations of both vitamin C and polyphenolics reduced rapidly during storage at room temperature. After three days, vitamin C reduced about 40% whereas total polyphenolics reduced about 70%. The losses at refrigerated temperature after 3 days were less than 15% and less than 30%, for vitamin C and total polyphenolics, respectively. Frozen storage of the fruit maintained quite well vitamin C and polyphenolics.Acerola pomace juice was concentrated before spray drying and, at the same vacuum pressure, temperatures influenced significantly the retention of vitamin C and total polyphenolics. Optimization of spray drying conditioners including inlet hot air temperatures and added ratio of maltodextrin (drying carrier) was also carried out to obtain high recovery of dry matter, total polyphenolics and vitamin C.
  • Optimum condition of manufacturing hybrid particleboard from mixture of cocoa pod husk and bamboo particles
    Electronic version: 28 Jun 2019 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.2.03.2019
    Abstract | PDF (260.1K)


    This study was to investigate the feasibility of using cocoa pod husks (CPH) and bamboo in manufacturing hybrid particle board. Three-layer experimental particle boards from mixture of bamboo and CPH participles were manufactured using different surface to core layer ratios (30, 40 and 50%) and various UF ratios for surface layer (6, 8 and 10%) and for core layer (4, 6 and 8%). Modulus of rupture (MOR), internal bond strength (IB) and thickness swelling (TS) properties of the boards were evaluated based on Standard TCVN7756:2007 Test Methods for general purpose used in dry conditions. The results showed that boards in all ratios of surface to core layer investigated could be manufactured using up till 8% UF resin for surface layer and up till 6% UF resin for core layer without falling below the minimum Standard VN7754:2007. The optimal condition was the surface to core layer ratio of 30% used with 9.51% UF resin for surface layer and 7.45% UF resin for core layer obtaining the lowest thickness swelling (TS) 11.13%. The highest values of MOR and IB were 15.25 MPa and 0.45 MPa, respectively. This study demonstrates that cocoa pod husks and bamboo waste can be an alternative raw material source for particleboard production.