The Journal of Agriculture and Development

●The Journal of Agriculture and Development (JAD) is an international and peer reviewed journal publishing novel and significant research in a wide range of topics such as Agribusiness and Economics, Agricultural Mechanics, Agronomy and Forestry Sciences, Animal Sciences, Aquaculture and Fisheries, Biotechnology, Enviromental and Natural Resources, Food Science and Technology, and Veterinary Medicine. The JAD is an open access journal that includes primary research, review articles, short communications, and special invited papers. We also publish special issues which focus on the current emerging topics in agricultural sciences.

●The JAD (the formerly named Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology) is published in 6 issues per year (4 issues in Vietnamese with English abstracts and 2 issues in English). The journal has published over 19 volumes since 2002.

●Period of publication: Issue 1 (FEB), Issue 2 (APR), Issue 3 (JUN), Issue 4 (AUG), Issue 5 (OCT), Issue 6 (DEC)

●Publisher: Nong Lam University, HCMC (NLU)

Upcoming Events

Efficiency of intensive tilapia culture in earthen ponds applied biofloc technology (BFT), probiotics and off-flavor control methods

Loan P. Phan, & Tu V. Nguyen
Electronic version: 01 Jun 2023 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.2.03.2023
Abstract | pdf (3.8M)


The aim of this study was to assess the efficiency of Nile and red tilapia cultured in intensive systems applied a combination of biofloc technology (BFT) and probiotics in earthen ponds with different methods to control the off-flavor problem. A growing-out experiment was conducted for 150 days in which both Nile tilapia (5.88 ± 0.59 g) and red tilapia (9.72 ± 0.72 g) fingerlings were randomly allotted into three replicates of earthen ponds which were subdivided into four treatment groups, including: off-flavor controlled by algae management in Nile tilapia ponds (NT - AM) and red tilapia ponds (RT - AM), and off-flavor controlled by active water exchange in Nile tilapia ponds (NT - WE) and red tilapia ponds (RT - WE). The results showed that water quality was maintained in suitable ranges for fish growth. There were no significant differences in growth performance (final weight, daily weight gain and specific growth rate) among all treatments (P < 0.05). Feed conversion ratio of Nile tilapia (1.28 - 1.31) was significantly lower than that of red tilapia (1.35 - 1.37) (P < 0.05). The survival ratio (about 80%) and extrapolated yield (21.50 tons/ha in 150 days) of fish was similar and high for both Nile and red tilapia. The quality of the harvested fish in term of condition factor, size even and off-flavor intensity was also excellent. The economic efficiency of red tilapia farming in this system was higher as compared to cage systems. This study clearly demonstrated that the technique of combined BFT and probiotic application in earthen ponds could contribute to the sustainable development of tilapia production in Vietnam by reducing production cost, saving water resource and avoiding environmental pollution.

Optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis condition of edible bird’s nest crumbs by response surface methodology and determination of biochemical characteristics of the hydrolysate

Hoang P. T. Truong, Thang T. Q. Vo, Ha T. T. Tran, Toan S. Vo, Ha T. Luong, & Tho P. Le
Electronic version: 01 Jun 2023 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.3.03.2023
Abstract | pdf (4.4M)


Edible bird's nest (EBN) crumbs are the by-product of the bird's nest industry. Despite having lower economic value compared to the original material, EBN crumbs still maintain high protein and carbohydrate content. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the optimal hydrolysis condition for EBN crumbs using protease to achieve the maximum degree of hydrolysis (DH). Plackett Burman design was employed to identify the important factors. The results showed that enzyme loading, temperature and hydrolysis time had the strongest effect on the DH. These factors were subsequently subjected to the optimization study using central composite design (CCD) of response surface methodology (RSM). The optimized conditions for the enzymatic hydrolysis of EBN crumbs were at an enzyme loading of 4%, temperature of 51ºC, and hydrolysis time of 90 min. The experimental DH obtained at the optimized condition (63.5%) was close to the predicted DH (64.1%). The enzymatic hydrolysate prepared at the optimal condition showed relatively high amino acid concentration (151.6 ± 1.29 µg/mL) and radical scavenging activity (64.97 ± 0.79%) compared to the boiled sample with values of only 50.1 ± 2.43 µg/mL and 18.36 ± 0.17%, respectively. The resultant hydrolysate had no effect on some of the microorganisms employed in this study. The EBN crumbs hydrolysate inhibited tyrosinase activity with an IC50 of 70.22 µg/mL, greater than that of boiled EBN (IC50= 108.9 µg/mL). The results indicated that the EBN crumbs hydrolysate could be further applied in the cosmetic industry as a rich source of nutrients and bioactive compounds for the formulation of beauty products.

Isolation and characteristics of Pseudomonas fluorescens to inhibit Phytophthora palmivora causing rot disease in durian

Van T. Tran, Ha T. Nguyen, Hang T. Nguyen, & Don D. Le
Electronic version: 01 Jun 2023 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.4.03.2023
Abstract | pdf (3.3M)


Plant growth promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) have long been selected as biocontrol agents for plants. The PGPR are beneficial bacteria that live in plant roots and enhance plant growth by various of mechanisms. The PGPR have many species of the bacterial genus Pseudomonas, in which the Pseudomonas fluorescens strains is suitable for application as a biocontrol agent due to its abundance in natural soil and plant root systems. Pseudomonas fluorescens strains have important characteristics such as the ability to adhere to soil particles and to rhizomes, the ability to synthesize antibiotics, and to produce hydrolytic enzymes. Furthermore, P. fluorescens strains also possess plant growth promoting characteristics such as proteolysis, phosphate solubilization, iron chelation, and phytohormone production. Durian is a crop that has been expanded in Southeast Asian countries but the rate of durians infected with root, stem and fruit rot caused by P. palmivora is quite large. In this study, five native P. fluorescens isolates were isolated from 70 soil and rhizome samples collected from 10 durian growing provinces and evaluated for their ability to antagonize P. palmivora in petri plates. These isolates were gram negative, small, single isolated rods without sporulation when observed under microscope. All of them tested positive for catalase test, oxidase test, starch hydorolysis, gelatine liquefaction, H2S, citrate utilization and negative with indole, Voges-proskauers, methyl red. All of 5 native P. fluorescens isolates were capable of phosphate solubilizing activity, N2 fixation, siderophore and IAA production. The study showed that P. fluorescens P. fDN strain was able to inhibit P. palmivora causing rot disease in durian with 51.85% inhibition of radial growth.

Improving the database on land use planning in Vung Tau city, Ba Ria - Vung Tau province

Linh D. T. Truong
Electronic version: 01 Jun 2023 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.6.03.2023
Abstract | pdf (4.2M)


Vung Tau city is an area where management of land use planning (LUP) and urban planning is quite complicated and has been successful in building LUP database. However, this database still has limitations that must be addressed, including (1) lack of data layer on current land use for building LUP database, (2) incompleted LUP attribute database, (3) lack of metadata, (4) no connection between LUP database and digital legal materials and (5) no overlay cadastral database to data layer of current land use and LUP database. To solve these problems, this research used many methods such as documents and data collection, inheritance, expert interview, data processing and analysis, mapping, GIS application, and IT applications. The results of this study showed that the structure of cadastral database of 8 wards was succesfully converted from existing structure (according to Circular 17/2010/TT-BTNMT) to the standard structure (according to Circular 75/2015/TT-BTNMT). The 2019 land inventory data was standardized and data layer of current land use for whole city was built. In addition, the LUP database (period 2010 - 2020) for Vung Tau was improved, including: supplementing attribute information, completing metadata, connecting LUP database with relevant digital legal records, overlaying cadastral database with LUP database and data layer of current land use. Briefly, our results could be a foundation to help Vung Tau manage land sustainably, contribute to successfully building national land database and meet the exploitation requirements of LUP information in accordance with the orientation of Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment for study area.

Water desalination of Chlorella vulgaris

Hau T. T. Nguyen, Giang T. K. Ho, Huong T. Nguyen, Sang M. Nguyen, Suong T. Nguyen, Duy N. Dao, & Viet B. Nguyen
Electronic version: 01 Jun 2023 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.5.03.2023
Abstract | pdf (2.8M)


Saltwater intrusion is a common phenomenon in Southern Vietnam, but salinization is becoming more serious due to the rising sea level related to climate change. Among potential methods for water desalination, the application of halophytic microalgae is gaining high interest. This study investigated the effect of Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) microalgae on reducing water salinity at different media (Bold Basal Medium and Sea Salt Medium) and in different salt concentrations (1 - 30 g/L). The results indicated that C. vulgaris microalgae had good growth in all mediums used and contributed to lowering the salt content from 20% to 40% after 15 days of cultivation.
Most Read
  • Influence of stocking density on water quality and growth performance of whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) reared in fiberglass tanks, without water exchange
    Electronic version: 27 Dec 2019 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.3.06.2019
    Abstract | PDF (3.4M)


    The present study evaluated the effects of stocking density on water quality parameters, growth performance and survival rate of white leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, reared in fiberglass tanks, without water exchange. Three stocking densities (50, 100 and 200 shrimp/m2) were tested. Each treatment consisted of three replicate fiberglass tanks (500 L). The shrimp were fed ad libitum four times per day with a commercial pellet (40-42% protein). After an 8-week trial, concentrations of nutrients in the culture tanks showed an increasing linear relationship with increasing stocking density. The growth performance of shrimp in low stocking densities was significantly greater than that in high stocking densities. The results from this study demonstrate that with increasing the stocking density the production of shrimp increased but n a low final weight and survival compared to low stocking density.
  • Relationship between the ratio of villous height:crypt depth and gut bacteria counts as well production parameters in broiler chickens
    Electronic version: 30 Jun 2021 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.1.03.2021
    Abstract | PDF (878.8K)


    The villous height to crypt depth (V:C) ratio is one of the most significant parameters which is associated with the nutrients’ absorption and greater body weight. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between V:C ratio, gut bacteria counts and production parameters in broiler chickens. A total of 100 individual broilers were randomly selected from a farm with 40,000 Ross 308 chickens and slaughtered for sampling at three different ages including 14, 28 and 37 day old. Villous height and crypt depth were measured for each section of the small intestine to calculate V:C ratio. Intestinal score and gut microbiology including total coliforms, lactic acid bacteria and Salmonella prevalence were assessed. At day 37, besides those parameters, the carcass, breast, legs and wings were taken for weight measurements. Leg and breast color was also measured. Data were statistically analyzed by STATA software to explore the relationship between V:C and those parameters. The results showed the positive correlation between V:C of duodenum and the number of lactic acid bacteria at 28 days of age (P < 0.05). Moreover, the leg yield was negatively related to the V:C ratio of jejunum (P < 0.05). No significant correlations were found between V:C ratio and other parameters. The results indicated the potential of controlling V:C ratio to improve gut health and meat quality of broiler chickens and thus, further studies should be conducted to fully evaluate these correlations.
  • Isolation and optimization of the growth conditions of thermophilic microorganism from hot springs
    Electronic version: 27 Apr 2023 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.8.03.2018
    Abstract | PDF (260.1K)


    The aim of this study was to isolate and optimize the growth conditions of thermophilic microorganism from hot springs. The isolation was conducted by using the mineral salt basal medium supplemented with 0.6% yeast extract at 500C. Totally, 33 isolates of thermophilic microorganism were isolated from hot springs at Truong Xuan (Khanh Hoa province) and Binh Chau (Ba Ria - Vung Tau province). The effects of temperature (45 - 800C), pH (pH 6 - 9) and carbon sources (malate, pyruvate, acetate, glucose, fructose, or carbon dioxide) on the growth of isolates were examined. In addition, the isolate morphology was also investigated by Gram and spore staining. The isolated thermophilic microorganism showed the diversity in colony morphology and color appearance. Most of them were rod shaped, spore-forming and most grew well at 500C and pH 7. The highest growth of all isolates was observed under malate, glucose, or fructose, as an organic carbon source and unable to use carbon dioxide. Six out of 33 thermophilic microorganism isolates (namely BM7, BS5, NS1, NS3, NS4, and NW6) grew rapidly under high temperatures from 50 - 550C and their morphology characteristics showed high similarity to Bacillus sp. The study evidenced the polymorphic diversity of thermophiles in the geothermal hot spring ecosystems.
  • The use of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) in domestic wastewater treatment
    Electronic version: 28 Jun 2018 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.7.03.2018
    Abstract | PDF (260.1K)


    The main objective of this study was to examine the efficacy and capacity of using hydroponic systems in municipal  pollutant removal at household scale. Three pilot scaled hydroponic systems [dimensionfor each system: 4.5 m (L) x Φ 114 mm] were installed to investigate the optimal age of vegetable, planting density and retention time for household wastewater treatment, respectively. Water spinach (Ipomoeaaquatica) planted in 27 plastic cups throughout 4.5-m-length and 114- mm-diameter uPVC pipes filled with wastewater was employed as the treating agent of pollutants. The averaged influent contained proximately 32.5 mg/L suspended solids (SS), 76.0 mg/L biological oxygen demand (BOD5), 220.5 mg/L chemical oxygen demand (COD), 26mg/L NH4+, 5.0 mg/L NO3−, and 8.5 mg/L PO43− at pH 7.3. Results showed that a designed system consisting of 10 plants of 15-day-old water spinach pre-planted in baked clay in each cup was capable oftreating 30 L of domestic wastewater meeting the current municipal wastewater discharge standards in Vietnam (column A standards of QCVN 14:2008/BTNMT) after 4 days of wastewater retention time. Ifoperated under conditions of the above parameters, the pilot-plant hydroponic system can achieve the removal of 65% SS, 82% BOD5, 74% COD, 90% NH4+, 30% NO3− and 86% PO43−. The result of this studyhas provided an applicable domestic wastewater treatment system ecofriendly and suitable for small and medium household areas.
  • Field assessment of the efficacy of M.B., LIBDV and Winterfield 2512 strain vaccines against infectious bursal disease in chickens
    Electronic version: 31 Dec 2018 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.3.06.2018
    Abstract | PDF (260.1K)


    Live virus vaccines are very important parts of the prevention of Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD) in chickens. However, the successful IBD vaccination depends on IBD field pressure, vaccination technique, the immune status of the chicken, and especially IBDV strains used in the vaccines which are able to break through a higher level of maternal-derived antibodies (MDA). The objective of this field study was to compare the efficacy of a new vaccine based on M.B. strain to other commercial vaccines (LIBDV and winterfiled 2512) in terms of speed of antibody immune response and interference to Newcastle Disease (ND) vaccination. Six houses of broilers, each with 15,000 to 16,000 chickens, were divided into two groups: (1) vaccinated with M.B. strain (group A) and (2) vaccinated with LIBDV or 2512 strains (group B). Blood samples were collected prior to the 1st IBD vaccination, and at 21, 28 and 35 days of age for IBD and ND antibodies. Comparison of lesion scores and uniformity of the bursa of Fabricius (BF) at 28 and 35 days of age was carried out. Results showed that both groups had good immune responses, but group A showed significantly higher IBD antibody titers at 28 and 35 days of age. Antibody titers for ND and histopathological lesion scores of the BF were not significantly different between the 2 groups. The BF in group A was more uniform and had fewer lesions when compared with that in group B. In conclusion, the IBD vaccine with an M.B. strain can provide better immunological efficacy than LIBDV and 2512 strains.