The Journal of Agriculture and Development

●The Journal of Agriculture and Development (JAD) is a peer reviewed journal publishing novel and significant research in a wide range of topics such as Agribusiness and Economics, Agricultural Mechanics, Agronomy and Forestry Sciences, Animal Sciences, Aquaculture and Fisheries, Biotechnology, Environmental and Natural Resources, Food Science and Technology, and Veterinary Medicine. The JAD is an open access journal that includes primary research, review articles, short communications, and special invited papers. We also publish special issues which focus on the current emerging topics in agricultural sciences.

●The JAD (the formerly named Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology) is published in 6 issues per year (4 issues in Vietnamese with English abstracts and 2 issues in English). The journal has published over 19 volumes since 2002. From 06/2018, the Journal started to publish online issues in two languages (English and Vietnamese).

●Period of publication: Issue 1 (FEB), Issue 2 (APR), Issue 3 (JUN, English), Issue 4 (AUG), Issue 5 (OCT), Issue 6 (DEC, English)

●The Journal's number of articles per issue ranges from 6 to 12.

●Publisher: Nong Lam University, HCMC (NLU)

Prevalence of dermatophytosis and Malassezia infection in dogs and cats in Thonglor Bangkok Pet Hospital in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Trung T. Nguyen, Khanh N. Dinh, & Thuong T. Nguyen
Electronic version: 11 Dec 2023 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.5.06.2023
Abstract | PDF (435.9K)


Malassezia yeasts are occasional human and animal skin organisms that commensally act as pathogens, while dermatophytes are common fungi in many clinics and hospitals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of dermatophytosis and Malassezia infections in dogs and cats, and the effect of treatments. The study was carried out from December 2022 to May 2023 in Thonglor Bangkok Pet Hospital, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Total 208 cases visited the hospital, in which 32 cases of otitis and 53 dermatitis were recorded. Sterile cotton swabs were used to collect the aural samples from 32 cases, then observed under the microscope to detect the presence and population of Malassezia yeasts. In 53 dermatitis cases, adhesive tape impressions (ATI) methods and fungal culture were used to identify the species of dermatophytes and Malassezia dermatitis. The results showed that Malassezia was isolated from 24 cases, including 23 Malassezia otitis and 1 Malassezia dermatitis. However, there was only one positive case with dermatophyte by two methods. Therefore, dermatophytosis could not be concluded due to the small number of positive cases. Meanwhile, Malassezia infection occurred mainly in dogs rather than cats at every age, and the infected rates were found more in exotic animals than in domestic animals and usually in males than females. The effect of treatments illustrated the significant improvement in Malassezia otitis by using Epiotic solution combined with Oridemyl ear drop. Moreover, great improvement was evident in dermatophytosis therapy with Itraconazole.

Sequencing p72 gene of field strain of African swine fever virus (ASFV) in Vietnam and generation of enhanced immunogenic fusion protein G-p72 potentially expressed as a recombinant antigen in ASFV subunit vaccine

Mai N. Tran, Hoang M. Nguyen, Loc T. Le, Hue T. Doan, Mi T. M. Nguyen, Binh T. Nguyen, & Phat X. Dinh
Electronic version: 11 Dec 2023 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.4.06.2023
Abstract | PDF (392.3K)


Protein p72 is the major surface protein of African swine fever virus (ASFV), which is immunogenic and can prime the host to elicit a protective immune response, while G protein is the surface glycoprotein of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), which is well-known to be a strong antigen to stimulate an effective humoral immunity. The aim of this study was to sequence fulllength p72 gene of a field strain of ASFV causing typical ASF in Dong Nai province in 2020 and fuse this p72 gene with VSV G gene to generate a recombinant fusion gene G-p72 that could simultaneously express both proteins and stimulate a better host immune response than p72 expression alone. The sequence of the gene showed 99.59% nucleotide sequence similarity to an ASFV isolate from China. The PCR was employed to produce the recombinant G-p72 gene, which was cloned into plasmid pET28a, followed by transformation into E. coli BL21 (DE3) for protein expression. The G-p72 expression was induced at 37°C and 28°C for 6 and 16 h, respectively. The expression showed that G-p72 was observed at 28°C for 16 h. In summary, the full length p72 gene of a field strain of ASFV was successfully sequenced and expressed as the recombinant G-p72 protein in E. coli BL21 (DE3). The expression level of the G-p72 fusion should be optimized and the immunogenicity of the recombinant protein should be examined in futher studies.

Treatment of sludge from intensive whiteleg shrimp farming using a sequencing batch reactor

Tran T. Q. Cao, Ha N. Nguyen, & Tu P. C. Nguyen
Electronic version: 11 Dec 2023 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.2.06.2023
Abstract | PDF (288.3K)


The wastewater/sludge generated from the shrimp aquaculture industry contains high levels of nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), and carbon (C). This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of N, P, and C removal and recovery from sludge obtained during the siphoning process of intensive white leg shrimp farming by using a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with two trials. In the first trial, reactors were operated aerobically (3 - 5 days) and anaerobically (4 - 6 days) in sequence, resulting in a total cycle time of 9 days. In trial 2, the reactors were run aerobically for the first 3, 4, & 5 days, respectively, succeeded by anoxic conditions until the end of the experiment on day 14. The results showed that the removal of total ammonia nitrogen and chemical oxygen demand was about 60 - 70%, but the treatment efficiencies of total N and P were extremely low. Moreover, the anaerobic mode improved the mineralization of P, while aerobic condition promoted nitrate production. Further studies are needed to improve the nutrient and organic removal performance of the SBR.

Optimization of essential oil extraction process from Piper nigrum L. by-products and investigation of its biological activities

Hanh T. Phan, Hang N. S. Vuong, Anh T. Ha, Anh T. V. Nguyen, Toan Q. Truong, Dong N. T. Le, Ly T. P. Trinh, & Biet V. Huynh
Electronic version: 11 Dec 2023 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.6.06.2023
Abstract | PDF (446.2K)


Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) is an industrial crop commonly grown in Vietnam. Besides its economic value, its processing released large amounts of by-products into the environment including leaves, flatterned seeds, and seed-bearing branches. The objective of this study was to optimize the extraction of essential oil from the mixture of three black pepper by-products and evaluate its biological activities in order to exploit the potential value of the by-products. The essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation in which the extraction conditions including extraction time, water to feed ratio, and ultrasonic pretreated time were optimized. The results showed that the highest essential oil yield was achieved after 4 h of extraction at a water to feed ratio of 10:1, and 10 min of ultrasonic pre-treament. Isospathulenol, β-elinene, caryophyllene, α-pinene, and α-copaene were identified as the main components of the essential oil as a result of chemical composition analysis using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The essential oils exhibited 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity with an IC50 value of 4.205 mg/mL and antibacterial capacity against four strains of bacteria, including Bacillus spizizenii, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enterica with the diameters of inhibition zone of 11.37 mm, 4.12 mm, 7.75 mm, 5.37 mm, respectively.

Friedel-Crafts sulfonylation catalyzed by chloroaluminate ionic liquid immobilized on magnetic nanoparticles: Optimization by response surface methodology

Lan T. N. Nguyen, Ngan T. T. Luu, Huy H. Le, Ha T. T. Phan, Viet B. Nguyen, & Thi T. X. Luu
Electronic version: 11 Dec 2023 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.8.06.2023
Abstract | PDF (507.6K)


This study focused on optimizing the Friedel-Crafts sulfonylation reaction between 1,3-dimethoxybenzene and p-toluenesulfonic anhydride using chloroaluminate ionic liquid immobilized on magnetic nanoparticles as the catalyst. Various reaction conditions including the ratio between reagents (0.9:1.0 - 1.1:1.0), the catalyst amount (0.1 - 0.3 g), reaction temperature (100 - 120oC), and time (1 - 3 h) were optimized using response surface methodology based on a central composite design model. The results showed that the optimal reaction conditions were achieved at 115°C for 2.3 h, using 0.24 g of catalyst with a reagent ratio of 1.0:1.0, resulting in the highest sulfones yield of 82%.
Most Read
  • Accumulation and distribution of heavy metal cadmium in sweet sorghum
    Electronic version: 30 Jun 2020 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.9.03.2020
    Abstract | PDF (260.1K)


    Many species of plants have been studied, as well as applied for cleansing the environment. Previous research has concluded that sorghum plants are highly tolerant to metal pollution and capable of reaching high biomass values in the presence of metals. However, the distribution of heavy metals in plant’s parts has not been adequately studied. In this study, two varieties of sweet sorghum (Keller and E-Tian) were grown with 5 levels (0, 5, 10, 25 and 50 ppm) of cadmium (Cd) in order to investigate the accumulation of Cd in plant parts at the hard dough stage. The results clearly showed the absence of Cd in the seeds of the above plants. There was the presence of Cd at the second and fifth leaf when the level of Cd reached 25 - 50 ppm. There was a great correlation coefficient between Cd and the position of the internodes, namely 0.86, 0.96, 0.99, 0.98 with KE, and 0.86, 0.92, 0.94, 0.94 with ET at 5, 10, 25 and 50 ppm Cd (P < 0.01), respectively. The greater the internodes, the lower the accumulation of Cd. The aforementioned plants recorded the high accumulation of Cd in their roots, peaking at 23.27 µg/g (dried weight, dw)  in Keller and 21.69  µg/g in E-Tian. Based on these results, it is concluded that the distribution of Cd in the studied sweet sorghum can be arranged in the following order: > stem > old leaves > young leaves.
  • Field assessment of the efficacy of M.B., LIBDV and Winterfield 2512 strain vaccines against infectious bursal disease in chickens
    Electronic version: 31 Dec 2018 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.3.06.2018
    Abstract | PDF (260.1K)


    Live virus vaccines are very important parts of the prevention of Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD) in chickens. However, the successful IBD vaccination depends on IBD field pressure, vaccination technique, the immune status of the chicken, and especially IBDV strains used in the vaccines which are able to break through a higher level of maternal-derived antibodies (MDA). The objective of this field study was to compare the efficacy of a new vaccine based on M.B. strain to other commercial vaccines (LIBDV and winterfiled 2512) in terms of speed of antibody immune response and interference to Newcastle Disease (ND) vaccination. Six houses of broilers, each with 15,000 to 16,000 chickens, were divided into two groups: (1) vaccinated with M.B. strain (group A) and (2) vaccinated with LIBDV or 2512 strains (group B). Blood samples were collected prior to the 1st IBD vaccination, and at 21, 28 and 35 days of age for IBD and ND antibodies. Comparison of lesion scores and uniformity of the bursa of Fabricius (BF) at 28 and 35 days of age was carried out. Results showed that both groups had good immune responses, but group A showed significantly higher IBD antibody titers at 28 and 35 days of age. Antibody titers for ND and histopathological lesion scores of the BF were not significantly different between the 2 groups. The BF in group A was more uniform and had fewer lesions when compared with that in group B. In conclusion, the IBD vaccine with an M.B. strain can provide better immunological efficacy than LIBDV and 2512 strains.
  • Application of PCR technique in diagnosis of four respiratory pathogenic bacteria in pigs at the slaughterhouse
    Electronic version: 28 Jun 2019 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.6.03.2019
    Abstract | PDF (260.1K)


    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Actinobacillus pleuropneumonia (App), Haemophilus parasuis (Hps), Pasteurella multocida (Pm) and Bordetella bronchiseptica (Bb) were performed in pure colonies isolated  from 114 lung specimens  with lesions collected from the Vissan slaughterhouse  in Ho Chi Minh City from July 2018 to May 2019. The aim of the experiment was to identify the four respiratory pathogenic bacteria in pigs at slaughterhouse by using PCR technique. The criteria for evaluating the results  included the proportion of positive samples with multiplex PCR and percentage of samples co-infected with 2, 3, and 4 bacteria. Among a total of 114 injured lung samples, 21% of the samples was positive to at least one of the four bacteria, 3 samples (2.63%) were positive for App, 2 samples (1.75%) were positive for Hps, 7 samples (6.14%) were for Pm, and 12 lungs (10.53%) were positive for Bb. One sample (0.88%) was found co-infected with Pm and Hps.
  • Optimum condition of manufacturing hybrid particleboard from mixture of cocoa pod husk and bamboo particles
    Electronic version: 28 Jun 2019 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.2.03.2019
    Abstract | PDF (260.1K)


    This study was to investigate the feasibility of using cocoa pod husks (CPH) and bamboo in manufacturing hybrid particle board. Three-layer experimental particle boards from mixture of bamboo and CPH participles were manufactured using different surface to core layer ratios (30, 40 and 50%) and various UF ratios for surface layer (6, 8 and 10%) and for core layer (4, 6 and 8%). Modulus of rupture (MOR), internal bond strength (IB) and thickness swelling (TS) properties of the boards were evaluated based on Standard TCVN7756:2007 Test Methods for general purpose used in dry conditions. The results showed that boards in all ratios of surface to core layer investigated could be manufactured using up till 8% UF resin for surface layer and up till 6% UF resin for core layer without falling below the minimum Standard VN7754:2007. The optimal condition was the surface to core layer ratio of 30% used with 9.51% UF resin for surface layer and 7.45% UF resin for core layer obtaining the lowest thickness swelling (TS) 11.13%. The highest values of MOR and IB were 15.25 MPa and 0.45 MPa, respectively. This study demonstrates that cocoa pod husks and bamboo waste can be an alternative raw material source for particleboard production.
  • The use of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) in domestic wastewater treatment
    Electronic version: 28 Jun 2018 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.7.03.2018
    Abstract | PDF (260.1K)


    The main objective of this study was to examine the efficacy and capacity of using hydroponic systems in municipal  pollutant removal at household scale. Three pilot scaled hydroponic systems [dimensionfor each system: 4.5 m (L) x Φ 114 mm] were installed to investigate the optimal age of vegetable, planting density and retention time for household wastewater treatment, respectively. Water spinach (Ipomoeaaquatica) planted in 27 plastic cups throughout 4.5-m-length and 114- mm-diameter uPVC pipes filled with wastewater was employed as the treating agent of pollutants. The averaged influent contained proximately 32.5 mg/L suspended solids (SS), 76.0 mg/L biological oxygen demand (BOD5), 220.5 mg/L chemical oxygen demand (COD), 26mg/L NH4+, 5.0 mg/L NO3−, and 8.5 mg/L PO43− at pH 7.3. Results showed that a designed system consisting of 10 plants of 15-day-old water spinach pre-planted in baked clay in each cup was capable oftreating 30 L of domestic wastewater meeting the current municipal wastewater discharge standards in Vietnam (column A standards of QCVN 14:2008/BTNMT) after 4 days of wastewater retention time. Ifoperated under conditions of the above parameters, the pilot-plant hydroponic system can achieve the removal of 65% SS, 82% BOD5, 74% COD, 90% NH4+, 30% NO3− and 86% PO43−. The result of this studyhas provided an applicable domestic wastewater treatment system ecofriendly and suitable for small and medium household areas.