The Journal of Agriculture and Development

●The Journal of Agriculture and Development (JAD) is an international and peer reviewed journal publishing novel and significant research in a wide range of topics such as Agribusiness and Economics, Agricultural Mechanics, Agronomy and Forestry Sciences, Animal Sciences, Aquaculture and Fisheries, Biotechnology, Enviromental and Natural Resources, Food Science and Technology, and Veterinary Medicine. The JAD is an open access journal that includes primary research, review articles, short communications, and special invited papers. We also publish special issues which focus on the current emerging topics in agricultural sciences.

●The JAD (the formerly named Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology) is published in 6 issues per year (4 issues in Vietnamese with English abstracts and 2 issues in English). The journal has published over 19 volumes since 2002.

●Period of publication: Issue 1 (FEB), Issue 2 (APR), Issue 3 (JUN), Issue 4 (AUG), Issue 5 (OCT), Issue 6 (DEC)

●Publisher: Nong Lam University, HCMC (NLU)

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Effects of nitrogen and potassium rates on growth and yield of red turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) on the gray soil in Ho Chi Minh City

Trang T. H. Nguyen, Binh V. Tran, Tri D. Q. Phan, Linh D. Dinh, Son T. T. Le, Thao X. Nguyen, Quang T. Le, & Truong V. Nguyen
Electronic version: 31 Dec 2022 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.1.06.2022
Abstract | pdf (269.5K)

Abstract

The objective of this study was to determine the appropriate rates of nitrogen and potassium fertilizers for growth, yield and economic efficiency of red turmeric cultivated on the gray soil in Ho Chi Minh City. The field experiment was conducted at the Agronomy Research Station in Nong Lam University, Ho Chi Minh City from December 2020 to October2021. The experiment was laid out in a split-plot design with three replicates. The main plots included four nitrogen rates 60, 90 (control), 120 and 150 kg N/ha. The subplots included four potassium rates 90, 120 (control), 150, and 180 kg K2O/ha. All treatments were basally applied with 500 kg lime, 10 tons cow manure and 60 kg P2O5/ha. The results showed that growth attributes and yield were significantly affected by the rates of nitrogen and potassium. Red turmeric applied with 150 kg N/ha combined with 180 kg K2O/ha obtained the outstanding results in growth, yield and profit, such as the plant height of 43.0 cm, stem diameter of 19.7 mm, a number of leaves of 8.6 (180 DAP), soil plant analysis development index of 42.1 (120 DAP), actual fresh yield of 33.9 tons/ha, the profit of VND 370.17 million/ha and the benefit-cost ratioof 2.68.

Experimental Toxocara canis infection in chickens

Mai T. Duong, Han N. N. Vu, Giang T. Tran, & Mai C. Duong
Electronic version: 31 Dec 2022 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.4.06.2022
Abstract | pdf (619.6K)

Abstract

The objective of this study was to determine the development phases of Toxocara canis eggs outside the host and the migration of larvae in the internal organs of chickens infected by ingestion of embryonated T. canis eggs. Under a microscope observation of T. canis eggs which were incubated in a petri dish containing 5 mL of distilled water at 30– 33◦C with regularly aerated, this study showed the development of T. canis egg through various stages, including one cell, two cells, three cells, four cells, early morula, late morula, blastula, gastrula, tadpole, pre-larva, embryonated larva. In addition, it took approximately 9 days for T. canis eggs to hatch and for infective larvae to develop at 30 - 33◦C. A total of 50 chickens were randomly assigned to 3 groups including group I (10 chicks/group) was served as control group without T. canis eggs inoculation; two treatment groups II and III (20 chicks/group) were orally inoculated with 500 or 1000 T. canis eggs, respectively. On 1, 3, 6, 15 and 30 days post inoculation (dpi), two chickens/control group and 4 chickens/treatment group were necropsied. The results showed that the percentage of larvae recovered varied from 14.00 to 33.93% and 13.07 to 32.00% in treatment groups II and III, respectively. After 1, 3, 6, and 30 dpi, the significant differences about the number of larvae recovered in two treatment groups were found (P < 0.05). In both treatment groups, the percentage of larvae recovered from livers was higher than that in lung tissue. For 6 dpi, small white foci on the liver’s surface were seen. Interstitial pneumonia, petechial hemorrhages, dark or gray inflammatory nodules in the lung tissue and the atelectatic area were observed. Histopathology examination revealed infiltrations of leukocytes and eosinophil scattered in the liver and lung tissue.

Effects of dietary supplementation with antibiotic, organic acid, probiotic and prebiotic on the intestinal morphology and Newcastle disease virus titers of broilers in commercial farms

Mai C. Duong, Vy T. L. Nguyen, Hoa T. K. Ho, Nha V. Nguyen, Ngoc H. Le, & Tham H. Tran
Electronic version: 31 Dec 2022 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.5.06.2022
Abstract | pdf (1M)

Abstract

This experiment was carried out to survey the antibody levels against Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and the morphology of ileal villi of broilers in commercial farms. Based on antibiotics and feed additives used, farms were classified in 3 groups as follows (1) Group I was supplied with antibiotic, probiotics and prebiotics; (2) Group II were supplemented with antibiotic, probiotics, prebiotics and organic acids; and (3) Group III was supplied with antibiotic and probiotics. In each farm, ten chicks were sacrificed at day 1, and five chicks were sacrificed at 7, 14, and 28 days old. A total number of 225 Ross 308 broilers at 1, 7, 14 and 28 days of age were selected randomly from nine farms for the titration of antibody against NDV by using Hemagglutination inhibition assay (HI). Furthermore, total 54 ileum samples of chickens on 14 and 28 days old were also collected for measurement of intestinal morphology. The present study showed there were significant differences about the body weights of broilers across farms within the same antibiotics, feed additives andvaccination programs or among different groups at 7, 14 and 28 days of age. However, at the age of 28 days, except Farm 1, 9 (Group I); 4 (Group II) and 3 (Group III), the remaining farms did not meet the criterion of chicken’s body weight. After ND vaccination for broilers at one day old, the mean value of HI antibody titers gradually declined in the first twoweeks. Except for Farm 7 and 8, at 14 days old, the remaining farms showed the low antibody titers under 3log2. No significant differences about the antibody titers against ND virus were found in broilers at 28 days of age (P > 0.05) among farms. The findings suggested that the supplementation of antibiotics, probiotics and/or prebiotics and/or organic acids did not have any consistent effects on immune response to NDV and body weights of broilers. However, the morphometric parameters of ileal villi were improved and the positive correlations between body weight and villi height or villi area in ileum segment were found in these chickens.

Effects of post-hatch feeding time and pre-starter feeds on growth performance and relative weight of visceral organs in slow-growing chickens

Phung T. K. Bui, Tran P. U. Cao, Khang N. Duong, & Tung M. Che
Electronic version: 31 Dec 2022 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.2.06.2022
Abstract | pdf (254.1K)

Abstract

The objective of the experiment was to evaluate effects of post-hatch feeding time and two different pre-starter diets on growth performance and relative weight of visceral organs and yolk sac in slow-growing chickens. A total of 480 one-day-old chicks (Luong Phuong breed) were randomly assigned into 4 treatment groups in a completely randomized design of 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with 10 chicks per pen. The two factors consisted of post-hatch feeding time (immediate access to feed after hatching (0 h) and delayed access to feed for 30 h after hatching) and pre-starters (Vi-start and Commercial 1). Birds were fed 2 different pre-starter diets from 0 to 7 days of age, and then all birds were fed the same commercial diets from 8 to 56 days of age. The results showed that during 0 - 7 days of age, chicks that were not fed for 30 h after hatch  were significantly lower in body weight, average daily feed intake, average daily gain and feed efficiency (FE) than those fed immediately right after hatch (P < 0.05). In this period, chicks fed Vi-start had better growth performance and FE than those fed Commercial 1. Over a 56-d study, there were no main effects of post-hatch feeding time or pre-starter feedon growth performance of chickens (P > 0.05). However, the post-hatch feeding time × pre-starter feed interaction was significant for final BW at 56 days of age (P = 0.01), suggesting that within commercial feed,  delayed access to feed for 30 h increased the final BW of chickens as compared with immediate access to feed after hatch. In brief, Vi-start fed to chicks improved the growth performance of chicks during the first week after hatch. Feeding pre-starter feeds to chicks immediately right after hatch would be beneficial.

Removal of ammonium and phosphate from slaughterhouse wastewater by electrochemical method using magnesium electrodes

Nguyen T. T. Ho, Nhut T. Huynh, Chat N. Tran, Thi Y. Ho, Vy T. H. Nguyen, Bang H. K. Nguyen, Manh C. Nguyen, & Hiep T. Nguyen
Electronic version: 31 Dec 2022 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.6.06.2022
Abstract | pdf (497.7K)

Abstract

In this research, the treatability of slaughterhouse wastewater was investigated by using the electrochemical method with Mg electrodes. The influence of the variables such as initial pH (4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9), current density (15, 30, and 45 mA/cm2), and reaction time (20, 25, and 30 min) on the removal efficiency of ammonium and phosphate was studied. The highest phosphate removal efficiency was reached at 100% after 20 min of electrochemical treatment with 30 mA/cm2 of current density and initial pH 6. Meanwhile, the maximum removal percent of ammonium was approximately 52%. Thus, this method is feasible to apply for the removal of phosphate and ammonium in slaughterhouse wastewater.
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  • Case report of brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome in brachycephalic dogs from Veterinary Specialist Service Hospital, Australia
    Electronic version: 30 Jun 2020 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.5.03.2020
    Abstract | PDF (260.1K)

    Abstract

    This report aimed to study symptoms and causes of brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome (BOAS) in brachycephalic dogs and to determine appropriate surgical procedures for these symptoms by reviewing literatures and examining four case studies conducted at Veterinary Specialist Service Hospital, Underwood, Queensland, Australia. The cases included a 6-year 3-month old Staffordshire Bull Terrier (case 1), a 1-year 5-month old French Bulldog (case 2), an 8-month old French Bulldog (case 3), and an 8-year 8-month Pug (case 4). Those dogs went to the Veterinary Specialist Service in a worsen state of respiratory problems, including the upper respiratory noise (case 1, 2, 3), decrease in exercise tolerance, respiratory struggling (case 1, 3), regurgitation (case 1), coughing, sleeping difficulty, respiratory stridor (case 2), nasal discharge, dyspnea, bloating, and tachypnea (case 4). Examinations revealed the causes including the elongated soft palate (case 1, 2, 3, 4), stenotic nostrils (case 2, 3, 4), tonsils inflammation (case 3) and everted laryngeal saccules (case 4). After surgery, the dogs were recovered in intensive care unit within 2 days, and then discharged. Scheduled re-examination one week later showed improvement in the respiratory health in all cases. Overall, major complications occur in 10\% of cases; however, this surgery is vital and can be totally applied in Vietnam where brachycephalic dogs have become a popular companion.
  • Fish composition in Dong Nai biosphere reserve in Vietnam
    Electronic version: 27 Dec 2019 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.5.06.2019
    Abstract | PDF (317.1K)

    Abstract

    Dong Nai biosphere reserve (DNBR) is well known for its high level of biodiversity and of global meaningful ecosystem. The fauna includes 84 species of mammals belonging to 28 families, 10 orders; 407 bird species; 141 reptile and amphibian species; 175 fish species; 2,017 insect species. The fish fauna of DNBR maintains many rare and endangered fish species recorded in the Vietnam red book and international union for conservation of nature red list (IUCN's red list) such as Scleropages formosus and many other rare fish species, such as Morulius chrysophekadion, Chitala ornata, Probarbus jullieni, Cyclocheilichthys enoplos... This study was aimed to identify fish composition distributed in DNBR. After the sampling period (01/2019 to 08/2019), a total of 114 fish species belonging to 11 orders and 28 families were recorded in DNBR. There were 09 species of fish on the list of rare and endangered fish species of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development of Vietnam, 3 species (Chitala ornata, Cosmochilus harmandi and Hemibagus filamentus) on the Vietnam red list book; 01 species (Ompok bimaculatus) on the IUCN's red list, 11 exotic species, 78 commercial species and 13 species having potential as aquarium fish. In addition, the study also found the first presence of a species of phallostethid, Phenacostethus smithi in DNBR.
  • Price risk perceptions and management strategies in Vietnamese pangasius production
    Electronic version: 28 Jun 2018 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.1.03.2018
    Abstract | PDF (260.1K)

    Abstract

    Vietnamese pangasius prices have become more volatile over the past decade exposing the business to risk and uncertainty. This study explored Vietnamese pangasius farmers’ perceptions about the sources of price risk and the effectiveness of price risk management strategies through Likert scales. The relationships between farm and farmer socioeconomic characteristics and their perceptions were also examined by using Chi-square analysis. Data were obtained through a structured survey with 110 farmers in three provinces of An Giang, Can Tho, and Dong Thap. Results suggested that pangasius farmers mostly concerned the instability of input prices, the volume of input supply, the instability of output prices, and the legislation of sales contracts between farmers and processors. We further found that price risk management strategies were not perceived as less effective measures to mitigate the price risk. Gender, farmers’ experience, farm size, crop period, farm types, and access to credit are positively related to the farmers’ perceptions. Findings on the price risk perceptions and management strategies are useful to support public and private of price risk management decision towards increasing the sustainability of pangasius production.
  • Effects of different extraction methods on the recovery yield of bixin from annatto seeds (Bixa orellana L.)
    Electronic version: 27 Dec 2019 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.8.06.2019
    Abstract | PDF (460.1K)

    Abstract

    Bixin is a principal color component of annatto pigment which is obtained from the seed coat of Bixa orellana L., a tropical shrub. The extraction yield of bixin from annatto seeds using acetone, soybean oil and sodium hydroxide solution with different extraction conditions were investigated in this study. The extraction time, temperature, solid-liquid ratio and light exposure showed significant effects on the bixin yield. The extraction using soybean oil had the lowest bixin yield followed by the extraction using sodium hydroxide solution. The extraction using acetone resulted in the highest extraction yield (68.1%) after only 40 min. The extraction using soybean oil at 100oC led to two-fold bixin yield compared to that operated at 80oC while the mild temperature (50oC) was found to be the most suitable for the extraction using sodium hydroxide solution. The exclusion of light exposure by covering extraction beakers with aluminum foil could significantly improve the bixin extraction yield due to the reduction in bixin degradation. Therefore, the extraction using acetone avoiding light exposure is suggested for recovering bixin from annatto seeds.
  • Identification of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), type 3 (PCV3) and porcine parvovirus (PPV) in swine by multiplex PCR test
    Electronic version: 30 Jun 2021 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.2.03.2021
    Abstract | PDF (583.6K)

    Abstract

    This study aimed to simultaneously detect three important viruses reported to be involved in the reproductive problems of sows. A multiplex PCR (mPCR) test was developed to provide rapid diagnosis of porcine circovirus type 2 and 3 (PCV2, PCV3) and to illustrate parvovirus (PPV) prevalence in sow herds. Three pairs of specific primers were designed to target PCV2 Cap gene, PCV3 Cap gene and PPV NS1 gene, with predicted mPCR products of 702 bp, 267 bp and 380 bp, respectively. The detection limit of mPCR was 100 copies/reaction per target gene. The mPCR was run against a panel of 94 swine serum samples whose infection status had been pre-determined by commercial real-time PCR kits. Sequencing of mPCR products performed with clinical serum samples accurately confirmed the results. Overall, the results indicated that the mPCR functioned accurately and specifically and matched 100% with the single-target real-time PCRs. The mPCR was developed successfully and can be used in routine diagnosis of PCV2, PCV3 and PPV.