The Journal of Agriculture and Development

●The Journal of Agriculture and Development (JAD) is a peer reviewed journal publishing novel and significant research in a wide range of topics such as Agribusiness and Economics, Agricultural Mechanics, Agronomy and Forestry Sciences, Animal Sciences, Aquaculture and Fisheries, Biotechnology, Environmental and Natural Resources, Food Science and Technology, and Veterinary Medicine. The JAD is an open access journal that includes primary research, review articles, short communications, and special invited papers. We also publish special issues which focus on the current emerging topics in agricultural sciences.

●The JAD (the formerly named Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology) is published in 6 issues per year (4 issues in Vietnamese with English abstracts and 2 issues in English). The journal has published over 19 volumes since 2002. From 06/2018, the Journal started to publish online issues in two languages (English and Vietnamese).

●Period of publication: Issue 1 (FEB), Issue 2 (APR), Issue 3 (JUN, English), Issue 4 (AUG), Issue 5 (OCT), Issue 6 (DEC, English)

●The Journal's number of articles per issue ranges from 6 to 12.

●Publisher: Nong Lam University, HCMC (NLU)

Effects of different doses of micro-organic and phosphorus fertilizers on growth and yield of red turmeric (Curcuma longa L.)

Trang T. H. Nguyen, Thinh V. Tran, Binh V. Tran, Tri D. Q. Phan, Linh D. Dinh, Son T. T. Le, Quang T. Le, & Truong V. Nguyen
Electronic version: 11 Dec 2023 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.1.06.2023
Abstract | PDF (206.3K)


The objective of the study was to determine the appropriate doses of micro-organic and phosphorus fertilizers for good growth, high rhizomes yield and enhancing the economic efficiency of red turmeric cultivated in gray soil in Thu Duc city. The twofactor experiment was laid out in a split-plot design with three replications. The main plots consisted of four doses of phosphorus fertilizer as 30, 60 (control), 90, & 120 kg P2O5/ha. The sub-plots included three doses of micro-organic fertilizer (2, 4, & 6 tons/ha) and a control with cow dung of 10 tons/ha. A common dose of 500 kg lime, 90 kg N, 120 kg K2O/ha was applied in all treatments. The results showed that red turmeric was applied at the dose of 120 kg P2O5 combined with 6 tons of micro-organic fertilizer/ha exhibited the highest growth, yield and economic outcomes including a plant height of 41.2 cm, stem diameter of 16.2 mm, leaf length of 24.4 cm, leaf width of 8.5 cm, leaf count of 7.0, soilplant analysis develoment index of 35.6, the profit of VND 386.32 million/ha, and the benefit cost ratio of 2.4. 

Sex reversal using 17 α-methyltestosterone immersion and its effect on sex reversal and growth performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L., 1758)

Dang H. Nguyen, Nhung T. H. Nguyen, Hien T. Nguyen, Nam V. Nguyen, & Tuan V. Vo
Electronic version: 11 Dec 2023 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.3.06.2023
Abstract | PDF (323.4K)


The study aimed to evaluate the optimal dose of 17 α-methyltestosterone (MT) and stocking density using immersion method for maximum survival, masculinization rates and growth performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The experimental design employed complete randomization including three concentrations of 17 α-methyltestosterone (1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 mg/L) and three stocking densities of 500, 750, and 1000 fish/L and a control group, arranged in three replicates. The control groups consisted of 3 stocking densities of 500, 750, & 1000 fish/L and fish were kept in glass aquaria containing MT-free water. Fish were exposed to MT solution for 2 h, and the fish were then transferred to nursery in hapas in earthen ponds at a density of 1,000 fish/m2 for 60 days. After the hormone treatment and 60 days of rearing, the highest survival rate was found in the control group. The male ratios in the MT treatments ranged from 78.9 to 91.1% and were statistically higher than that in the control (55.1%) (P < 0.05). The most effective doses and stocking density in sex-reversal of the tilapia fry using immersion method were 2.0 mg 17 α-MT/L and 750 fish/L, respectively. The mean weight and length of fish in the MT treatments were greater than those in the control treatment, although the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). The results also showed that the average weight of experimental fish was directly proportional to the hormone concentration but inversely proportional to the stocking density. Based on the study findings, the recommended dose for producing maximum mono-sex male tilapia is 2.0 mg 17 α-MT /L, and the most suitable stocking density is 750 fish/L.

Prevalence of dermatophytosis and Malassezia infection in dogs and cats in Thonglor Bangkok Pet Hospital in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Trung T. Nguyen, Khanh N. Dinh, & Thuong T. Nguyen
Electronic version: 11 Dec 2023 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.5.06.2023
Abstract | PDF (435.9K)


Malassezia yeasts are occasional human and animal skin organisms that commensally act as pathogens, while dermatophytes are common fungi in many clinics and hospitals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of dermatophytosis and Malassezia infections in dogs and cats, and the effect of treatments. The study was carried out from December 2022 to May 2023 in Thonglor Bangkok Pet Hospital, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Total 208 cases visited the hospital, in which 32 cases of otitis and 53 dermatitis were recorded. Sterile cotton swabs were used to collect the aural samples from 32 cases, then observed under the microscope to detect the presence and population of Malassezia yeasts. In 53 dermatitis cases, adhesive tape impressions (ATI) methods and fungal culture were used to identify the species of dermatophytes and Malassezia dermatitis. The results showed that Malassezia was isolated from 24 cases, including 23 Malassezia otitis and 1 Malassezia dermatitis. However, there was only one positive case with dermatophyte by two methods. Therefore, dermatophytosis could not be concluded due to the small number of positive cases. Meanwhile, Malassezia infection occurred mainly in dogs rather than cats at every age, and the infected rates were found more in exotic animals than in domestic animals and usually in males than females. The effect of treatments illustrated the significant improvement in Malassezia otitis by using Epiotic solution combined with Oridemyl ear drop. Moreover, great improvement was evident in dermatophytosis therapy with Itraconazole.

Optimization of essential oil extraction process from Piper nigrum L. by-products and investigation of its biological activities

Hanh T. Phan, Hang N. S. Vuong, Anh T. Ha, Anh T. V. Nguyen, Toan Q. Truong, Dong N. T. Le, Ly T. P. Trinh, & Biet V. Huynh
Electronic version: 11 Dec 2023 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.6.06.2023
Abstract | PDF (446.2K)


Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) is an industrial crop commonly grown in Vietnam. Besides its economic value, its processing released large amounts of by-products into the environment including leaves, flatterned seeds, and seed-bearing branches. The objective of this study was to optimize the extraction of essential oil from the mixture of three black pepper by-products and evaluate its biological activities in order to exploit the potential value of the by-products. The essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation in which the extraction conditions including extraction time, water to feed ratio, and ultrasonic pretreated time were optimized. The results showed that the highest essential oil yield was achieved after 4 h of extraction at a water to feed ratio of 10:1, and 10 min of ultrasonic pre-treament. Isospathulenol, β-elinene, caryophyllene, α-pinene, and α-copaene were identified as the main components of the essential oil as a result of chemical composition analysis using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The essential oils exhibited 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity with an IC50 value of 4.205 mg/mL and antibacterial capacity against four strains of bacteria, including Bacillus spizizenii, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enterica with the diameters of inhibition zone of 11.37 mm, 4.12 mm, 7.75 mm, 5.37 mm, respectively.

Optimization of ultrasound-assisted enzymatic extraction of betalains from red beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.)

Dat T. Huynh, Thien H. Nguyen, Ngan T. K. Nguyen, Anh T. N. Dang, Thuy T. Le, Dan T. N. Duong, & Huan T. Phan
Electronic version: 11 Dec 2023 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.7.06.2023
Abstract | PDF (413.9K)


Betalains in red beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) offer health benefits and are commonly used as a food colorant. This study aimed to investigate betalains extraction using ultrasound-assisted enzymatic extraction (UAEE). The most significant factors involved in UAEE such as enzyme concentration, extraction temperature, and extraction time were studied and optimized using the response surface method (RSM) to achieve the highest betalains yield. The results showed that the optimal extraction conditions were as follows: enzyme concentration (32.1 U/mL), extraction temperature (40oC), and extraction time (117 min) gave the highest yield of betalains at the level of 550.51 ± 25.76 mg/L. The findings are promising for the industrial scale of extraction betalains for food applications.
Most Read
  • The effects of plant spacing on yield and quality of butterfly pea (Clitoria ternatea L.) cultivated in organic-oriented farming system on grey soil
    Electronic version: 30 Jun 2020 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.2.03.2020
    Abstract | PDF (260.1K)


    Clitoria ternatea L. is a plant species that can be used in food and pharmaceutical industry. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different plant spacing on the productivity and quality of butterfly pea grown on grey soil in Thu Duc, Ho Chi Minh City. Six treatments correspond to plant spacing of 80 x 15 cm, 80 x 20 cm, 80 x 25 cm, 80 x 30 cm, 80 x 35 cm and 80 x 40 cm. The results showed that the highest flower amount (296.8 flowers/plant) was obtained with butterfly pea planted at the spacing of 80 x 15 cm, commercial flower weight (7.86 g/100 flowers), theoretical yield of fresh flower (1,779.0 kg/1,000 m2, actual yield of fresh flower (841.9 kg/1,000 m2), theoretical yield of commercial flower (194.6 kg/1,000 m2 and actual yield of commercial flower (89.0 kg/1,000 m2. Nevertheless, plant spacings did not affect the dry matter ratio, anthocyanin and tannin content in the commercial butterfly flowers.
  • Fish composition in Dong Nai biosphere reserve in Vietnam
    Electronic version: 27 Dec 2019 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.5.06.2019
    Abstract | PDF (317.1K)


    Dong Nai biosphere reserve (DNBR) is well known for its high level of biodiversity and of global meaningful ecosystem. The fauna includes 84 species of mammals belonging to 28 families, 10 orders; 407 bird species; 141 reptile and amphibian species; 175 fish species; 2,017 insect species. The fish fauna of DNBR maintains many rare and endangered fish species recorded in the Vietnam red book and international union for conservation of nature red list (IUCN's red list) such as Scleropages formosus and many other rare fish species, such as Morulius chrysophekadion, Chitala ornata, Probarbus jullieni, Cyclocheilichthys enoplos... This study was aimed to identify fish composition distributed in DNBR. After the sampling period (01/2019 to 08/2019), a total of 114 fish species belonging to 11 orders and 28 families were recorded in DNBR. There were 09 species of fish on the list of rare and endangered fish species of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development of Vietnam, 3 species (Chitala ornata, Cosmochilus harmandi and Hemibagus filamentus) on the Vietnam red list book; 01 species (Ompok bimaculatus) on the IUCN's red list, 11 exotic species, 78 commercial species and 13 species having potential as aquarium fish. In addition, the study also found the first presence of a species of phallostethid, Phenacostethus smithi in DNBR.
  • Influence of stocking density on water quality and growth performance of whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) reared in fiberglass tanks, without water exchange
    Electronic version: 27 Dec 2019 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.3.06.2019
    Abstract | PDF (3.4M)


    The present study evaluated the effects of stocking density on water quality parameters, growth performance and survival rate of white leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, reared in fiberglass tanks, without water exchange. Three stocking densities (50, 100 and 200 shrimp/m2) were tested. Each treatment consisted of three replicate fiberglass tanks (500 L). The shrimp were fed ad libitum four times per day with a commercial pellet (40-42% protein). After an 8-week trial, concentrations of nutrients in the culture tanks showed an increasing linear relationship with increasing stocking density. The growth performance of shrimp in low stocking densities was significantly greater than that in high stocking densities. The results from this study demonstrate that with increasing the stocking density the production of shrimp increased but n a low final weight and survival compared to low stocking density.
  • The use of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) in domestic wastewater treatment
    Electronic version: 28 Jun 2018 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.7.03.2018
    Abstract | PDF (260.1K)


    The main objective of this study was to examine the efficacy and capacity of using hydroponic systems in municipal  pollutant removal at household scale. Three pilot scaled hydroponic systems [dimensionfor each system: 4.5 m (L) x Φ 114 mm] were installed to investigate the optimal age of vegetable, planting density and retention time for household wastewater treatment, respectively. Water spinach (Ipomoeaaquatica) planted in 27 plastic cups throughout 4.5-m-length and 114- mm-diameter uPVC pipes filled with wastewater was employed as the treating agent of pollutants. The averaged influent contained proximately 32.5 mg/L suspended solids (SS), 76.0 mg/L biological oxygen demand (BOD5), 220.5 mg/L chemical oxygen demand (COD), 26mg/L NH4+, 5.0 mg/L NO3−, and 8.5 mg/L PO43− at pH 7.3. Results showed that a designed system consisting of 10 plants of 15-day-old water spinach pre-planted in baked clay in each cup was capable oftreating 30 L of domestic wastewater meeting the current municipal wastewater discharge standards in Vietnam (column A standards of QCVN 14:2008/BTNMT) after 4 days of wastewater retention time. Ifoperated under conditions of the above parameters, the pilot-plant hydroponic system can achieve the removal of 65% SS, 82% BOD5, 74% COD, 90% NH4+, 30% NO3− and 86% PO43−. The result of this studyhas provided an applicable domestic wastewater treatment system ecofriendly and suitable for small and medium household areas.
  • Case report of brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome in brachycephalic dogs from Veterinary Specialist Service Hospital, Australia
    Electronic version: 30 Jun 2020 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.5.03.2020
    Abstract | PDF (260.1K)


    This report aimed to study symptoms and causes of brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome (BOAS) in brachycephalic dogs and to determine appropriate surgical procedures for these symptoms by reviewing literatures and examining four case studies conducted at Veterinary Specialist Service Hospital, Underwood, Queensland, Australia. The cases included a 6-year 3-month old Staffordshire Bull Terrier (case 1), a 1-year 5-month old French Bulldog (case 2), an 8-month old French Bulldog (case 3), and an 8-year 8-month Pug (case 4). Those dogs went to the Veterinary Specialist Service in a worsen state of respiratory problems, including the upper respiratory noise (case 1, 2, 3), decrease in exercise tolerance, respiratory struggling (case 1, 3), regurgitation (case 1), coughing, sleeping difficulty, respiratory stridor (case 2), nasal discharge, dyspnea, bloating, and tachypnea (case 4). Examinations revealed the causes including the elongated soft palate (case 1, 2, 3, 4), stenotic nostrils (case 2, 3, 4), tonsils inflammation (case 3) and everted laryngeal saccules (case 4). After surgery, the dogs were recovered in intensive care unit within 2 days, and then discharged. Scheduled re-examination one week later showed improvement in the respiratory health in all cases. Overall, major complications occur in 10\% of cases; however, this surgery is vital and can be totally applied in Vietnam where brachycephalic dogs have become a popular companion.