The Journal of Agriculture and Development

●The Journal of Agriculture and Development (JAD) is a peer reviewed journal publishing novel and significant research in a wide range of topics such as Agribusiness and Economics, Agricultural Mechanics, Agronomy and Forestry Sciences, Animal Sciences, Aquaculture and Fisheries, Biotechnology, Environmental and Natural Resources, Food Science and Technology, and Veterinary Medicine. The JAD is an open access journal that includes primary research, review articles, short communications, and special invited papers. We also publish special issues which focus on the current emerging topics in agricultural sciences.

●The JAD (the formerly named Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology) is published in 6 issues per year (4 issues in Vietnamese with English abstracts and 2 issues in English). The journal has published over 19 volumes since 2002. From 06/2018, the Journal started to publish online issues in two languages (English and Vietnamese).

●Period of publication: Issue 1 (FEB), Issue 2 (APR), Issue 3 (JUN, English), Issue 4 (AUG), Issue 5 (OCT), Issue 6 (DEC, English)

●The Journal's number of articles per issue ranges from 6 to 12.

●Publisher: Nong Lam University, HCMC (NLU)

Effects of different doses of micro-organic and phosphorus fertilizers on growth and yield of red turmeric (Curcuma longa L.)

Trang T. H. Nguyen, Thinh V. Tran, Binh V. Tran, Tri D. Q. Phan, Linh D. Dinh, Son T. T. Le, Quang T. Le, & Truong V. Nguyen
Electronic version: 11 Dec 2023 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.1.06.2023
Abstract | PDF (206.3K)


The objective of the study was to determine the appropriate doses of micro-organic and phosphorus fertilizers for good growth, high rhizomes yield and enhancing the economic efficiency of red turmeric cultivated in gray soil in Thu Duc city. The twofactor experiment was laid out in a split-plot design with three replications. The main plots consisted of four doses of phosphorus fertilizer as 30, 60 (control), 90, & 120 kg P2O5/ha. The sub-plots included three doses of micro-organic fertilizer (2, 4, & 6 tons/ha) and a control with cow dung of 10 tons/ha. A common dose of 500 kg lime, 90 kg N, 120 kg K2O/ha was applied in all treatments. The results showed that red turmeric was applied at the dose of 120 kg P2O5 combined with 6 tons of micro-organic fertilizer/ha exhibited the highest growth, yield and economic outcomes including a plant height of 41.2 cm, stem diameter of 16.2 mm, leaf length of 24.4 cm, leaf width of 8.5 cm, leaf count of 7.0, soilplant analysis develoment index of 35.6, the profit of VND 386.32 million/ha, and the benefit cost ratio of 2.4. 

Treatment of sludge from intensive whiteleg shrimp farming using a sequencing batch reactor

Tran T. Q. Cao, Ha N. Nguyen, & Tu P. C. Nguyen
Electronic version: 11 Dec 2023 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.2.06.2023
Abstract | PDF (288.3K)


The wastewater/sludge generated from the shrimp aquaculture industry contains high levels of nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), and carbon (C). This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of N, P, and C removal and recovery from sludge obtained during the siphoning process of intensive white leg shrimp farming by using a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with two trials. In the first trial, reactors were operated aerobically (3 - 5 days) and anaerobically (4 - 6 days) in sequence, resulting in a total cycle time of 9 days. In trial 2, the reactors were run aerobically for the first 3, 4, & 5 days, respectively, succeeded by anoxic conditions until the end of the experiment on day 14. The results showed that the removal of total ammonia nitrogen and chemical oxygen demand was about 60 - 70%, but the treatment efficiencies of total N and P were extremely low. Moreover, the anaerobic mode improved the mineralization of P, while aerobic condition promoted nitrate production. Further studies are needed to improve the nutrient and organic removal performance of the SBR.

Sex reversal using 17 α-methyltestosterone immersion and its effect on sex reversal and growth performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L., 1758)

Dang H. Nguyen, Nhung T. H. Nguyen, Hien T. Nguyen, Nam V. Nguyen, & Tuan V. Vo
Electronic version: 11 Dec 2023 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.3.06.2023
Abstract | PDF (323.4K)


The study aimed to evaluate the optimal dose of 17 α-methyltestosterone (MT) and stocking density using immersion method for maximum survival, masculinization rates and growth performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The experimental design employed complete randomization including three concentrations of 17 α-methyltestosterone (1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 mg/L) and three stocking densities of 500, 750, and 1000 fish/L and a control group, arranged in three replicates. The control groups consisted of 3 stocking densities of 500, 750, & 1000 fish/L and fish were kept in glass aquaria containing MT-free water. Fish were exposed to MT solution for 2 h, and the fish were then transferred to nursery in hapas in earthen ponds at a density of 1,000 fish/m2 for 60 days. After the hormone treatment and 60 days of rearing, the highest survival rate was found in the control group. The male ratios in the MT treatments ranged from 78.9 to 91.1% and were statistically higher than that in the control (55.1%) (P < 0.05). The most effective doses and stocking density in sex-reversal of the tilapia fry using immersion method were 2.0 mg 17 α-MT/L and 750 fish/L, respectively. The mean weight and length of fish in the MT treatments were greater than those in the control treatment, although the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). The results also showed that the average weight of experimental fish was directly proportional to the hormone concentration but inversely proportional to the stocking density. Based on the study findings, the recommended dose for producing maximum mono-sex male tilapia is 2.0 mg 17 α-MT /L, and the most suitable stocking density is 750 fish/L.

Prevalence of dermatophytosis and Malassezia infection in dogs and cats in Thonglor Bangkok Pet Hospital in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Trung T. Nguyen, Khanh N. Dinh, & Thuong T. Nguyen
Electronic version: 11 Dec 2023 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.5.06.2023
Abstract | PDF (435.9K)


Malassezia yeasts are occasional human and animal skin organisms that commensally act as pathogens, while dermatophytes are common fungi in many clinics and hospitals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of dermatophytosis and Malassezia infections in dogs and cats, and the effect of treatments. The study was carried out from December 2022 to May 2023 in Thonglor Bangkok Pet Hospital, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Total 208 cases visited the hospital, in which 32 cases of otitis and 53 dermatitis were recorded. Sterile cotton swabs were used to collect the aural samples from 32 cases, then observed under the microscope to detect the presence and population of Malassezia yeasts. In 53 dermatitis cases, adhesive tape impressions (ATI) methods and fungal culture were used to identify the species of dermatophytes and Malassezia dermatitis. The results showed that Malassezia was isolated from 24 cases, including 23 Malassezia otitis and 1 Malassezia dermatitis. However, there was only one positive case with dermatophyte by two methods. Therefore, dermatophytosis could not be concluded due to the small number of positive cases. Meanwhile, Malassezia infection occurred mainly in dogs rather than cats at every age, and the infected rates were found more in exotic animals than in domestic animals and usually in males than females. The effect of treatments illustrated the significant improvement in Malassezia otitis by using Epiotic solution combined with Oridemyl ear drop. Moreover, great improvement was evident in dermatophytosis therapy with Itraconazole.

Optimization of ultrasound-assisted enzymatic extraction of betalains from red beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.)

Dat T. Huynh, Thien H. Nguyen, Ngan T. K. Nguyen, Anh T. N. Dang, Thuy T. Le, Dan T. N. Duong, & Huan T. Phan
Electronic version: 11 Dec 2023 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.7.06.2023
Abstract | PDF (413.9K)


Betalains in red beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) offer health benefits and are commonly used as a food colorant. This study aimed to investigate betalains extraction using ultrasound-assisted enzymatic extraction (UAEE). The most significant factors involved in UAEE such as enzyme concentration, extraction temperature, and extraction time were studied and optimized using the response surface method (RSM) to achieve the highest betalains yield. The results showed that the optimal extraction conditions were as follows: enzyme concentration (32.1 U/mL), extraction temperature (40oC), and extraction time (117 min) gave the highest yield of betalains at the level of 550.51 ± 25.76 mg/L. The findings are promising for the industrial scale of extraction betalains for food applications.
Most Read
  • The use of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) in domestic wastewater treatment
    Electronic version: 28 Jun 2018 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.7.03.2018
    Abstract | PDF (260.1K)


    The main objective of this study was to examine the efficacy and capacity of using hydroponic systems in municipal  pollutant removal at household scale. Three pilot scaled hydroponic systems [dimensionfor each system: 4.5 m (L) x Φ 114 mm] were installed to investigate the optimal age of vegetable, planting density and retention time for household wastewater treatment, respectively. Water spinach (Ipomoeaaquatica) planted in 27 plastic cups throughout 4.5-m-length and 114- mm-diameter uPVC pipes filled with wastewater was employed as the treating agent of pollutants. The averaged influent contained proximately 32.5 mg/L suspended solids (SS), 76.0 mg/L biological oxygen demand (BOD5), 220.5 mg/L chemical oxygen demand (COD), 26mg/L NH4+, 5.0 mg/L NO3−, and 8.5 mg/L PO43− at pH 7.3. Results showed that a designed system consisting of 10 plants of 15-day-old water spinach pre-planted in baked clay in each cup was capable oftreating 30 L of domestic wastewater meeting the current municipal wastewater discharge standards in Vietnam (column A standards of QCVN 14:2008/BTNMT) after 4 days of wastewater retention time. Ifoperated under conditions of the above parameters, the pilot-plant hydroponic system can achieve the removal of 65% SS, 82% BOD5, 74% COD, 90% NH4+, 30% NO3− and 86% PO43−. The result of this studyhas provided an applicable domestic wastewater treatment system ecofriendly and suitable for small and medium household areas.
  • Field assessment of the efficacy of M.B., LIBDV and Winterfield 2512 strain vaccines against infectious bursal disease in chickens
    Electronic version: 31 Dec 2018 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.3.06.2018
    Abstract | PDF (260.1K)


    Live virus vaccines are very important parts of the prevention of Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD) in chickens. However, the successful IBD vaccination depends on IBD field pressure, vaccination technique, the immune status of the chicken, and especially IBDV strains used in the vaccines which are able to break through a higher level of maternal-derived antibodies (MDA). The objective of this field study was to compare the efficacy of a new vaccine based on M.B. strain to other commercial vaccines (LIBDV and winterfiled 2512) in terms of speed of antibody immune response and interference to Newcastle Disease (ND) vaccination. Six houses of broilers, each with 15,000 to 16,000 chickens, were divided into two groups: (1) vaccinated with M.B. strain (group A) and (2) vaccinated with LIBDV or 2512 strains (group B). Blood samples were collected prior to the 1st IBD vaccination, and at 21, 28 and 35 days of age for IBD and ND antibodies. Comparison of lesion scores and uniformity of the bursa of Fabricius (BF) at 28 and 35 days of age was carried out. Results showed that both groups had good immune responses, but group A showed significantly higher IBD antibody titers at 28 and 35 days of age. Antibody titers for ND and histopathological lesion scores of the BF were not significantly different between the 2 groups. The BF in group A was more uniform and had fewer lesions when compared with that in group B. In conclusion, the IBD vaccine with an M.B. strain can provide better immunological efficacy than LIBDV and 2512 strains.
  • Accumulation and distribution of heavy metal cadmium in sweet sorghum
    Electronic version: 30 Jun 2020 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.9.03.2020
    Abstract | PDF (260.1K)


    Many species of plants have been studied, as well as applied for cleansing the environment. Previous research has concluded that sorghum plants are highly tolerant to metal pollution and capable of reaching high biomass values in the presence of metals. However, the distribution of heavy metals in plant’s parts has not been adequately studied. In this study, two varieties of sweet sorghum (Keller and E-Tian) were grown with 5 levels (0, 5, 10, 25 and 50 ppm) of cadmium (Cd) in order to investigate the accumulation of Cd in plant parts at the hard dough stage. The results clearly showed the absence of Cd in the seeds of the above plants. There was the presence of Cd at the second and fifth leaf when the level of Cd reached 25 - 50 ppm. There was a great correlation coefficient between Cd and the position of the internodes, namely 0.86, 0.96, 0.99, 0.98 with KE, and 0.86, 0.92, 0.94, 0.94 with ET at 5, 10, 25 and 50 ppm Cd (P < 0.01), respectively. The greater the internodes, the lower the accumulation of Cd. The aforementioned plants recorded the high accumulation of Cd in their roots, peaking at 23.27 µg/g (dried weight, dw)  in Keller and 21.69  µg/g in E-Tian. Based on these results, it is concluded that the distribution of Cd in the studied sweet sorghum can be arranged in the following order: > stem > old leaves > young leaves.
  • Application of PCR technique in diagnosis of four respiratory pathogenic bacteria in pigs at the slaughterhouse
    Electronic version: 28 Jun 2019 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.6.03.2019
    Abstract | PDF (260.1K)


    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Actinobacillus pleuropneumonia (App), Haemophilus parasuis (Hps), Pasteurella multocida (Pm) and Bordetella bronchiseptica (Bb) were performed in pure colonies isolated  from 114 lung specimens  with lesions collected from the Vissan slaughterhouse  in Ho Chi Minh City from July 2018 to May 2019. The aim of the experiment was to identify the four respiratory pathogenic bacteria in pigs at slaughterhouse by using PCR technique. The criteria for evaluating the results  included the proportion of positive samples with multiplex PCR and percentage of samples co-infected with 2, 3, and 4 bacteria. Among a total of 114 injured lung samples, 21% of the samples was positive to at least one of the four bacteria, 3 samples (2.63%) were positive for App, 2 samples (1.75%) were positive for Hps, 7 samples (6.14%) were for Pm, and 12 lungs (10.53%) were positive for Bb. One sample (0.88%) was found co-infected with Pm and Hps.
  • Fish composition in Dong Nai biosphere reserve in Vietnam
    Electronic version: 27 Dec 2019 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.5.06.2019
    Abstract | PDF (317.1K)


    Dong Nai biosphere reserve (DNBR) is well known for its high level of biodiversity and of global meaningful ecosystem. The fauna includes 84 species of mammals belonging to 28 families, 10 orders; 407 bird species; 141 reptile and amphibian species; 175 fish species; 2,017 insect species. The fish fauna of DNBR maintains many rare and endangered fish species recorded in the Vietnam red book and international union for conservation of nature red list (IUCN's red list) such as Scleropages formosus and many other rare fish species, such as Morulius chrysophekadion, Chitala ornata, Probarbus jullieni, Cyclocheilichthys enoplos... This study was aimed to identify fish composition distributed in DNBR. After the sampling period (01/2019 to 08/2019), a total of 114 fish species belonging to 11 orders and 28 families were recorded in DNBR. There were 09 species of fish on the list of rare and endangered fish species of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development of Vietnam, 3 species (Chitala ornata, Cosmochilus harmandi and Hemibagus filamentus) on the Vietnam red list book; 01 species (Ompok bimaculatus) on the IUCN's red list, 11 exotic species, 78 commercial species and 13 species having potential as aquarium fish. In addition, the study also found the first presence of a species of phallostethid, Phenacostethus smithi in DNBR.