The Journal of Agriculture and Development

●The Journal of Agriculture and Development (JAD) is an international and peer reviewed journal publishing novel and significant research in a wide range of topics such as Agribusiness and Economics, Agricultural Mechanics, Agronomy and Forestry Sciences, Animal Sciences, Aquaculture and Fisheries, Biotechnology, Enviromental and Natural Resources, Food Science and Technology, and Veterinary Medicine. The JAD is an open access journal that includes primary research, review articles, short communications, and special invited papers. We also publish special issues which focus on the current emerging topics in agricultural sciences.

●The JAD (the formerly named Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology) is published in 6 issues per year (4 issues in Vietnamese with English abstracts and 2 issues in English). The journal has published over 19 volumes since 2002.

●Period of publication: Issue 1 (FEB), Issue 2 (APR), Issue 3 (JUN), Issue 4 (AUG), Issue 5 (OCT), Issue 6 (DEC)

●Publisher: Nong Lam University, HCMC (NLU)

Relationship between the ratio of villous height:crypt depth and gut bacteria counts as well production parameters in broiler chickens

Dung T. N. Nguyen, Ngoc H. Le, Vinh V. Pham, Parra Eva, Forti Alberto, & Hien T. Le
Electronic version: 30 Jun 2021 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.1.03.2021
Abstract | PDF (878.8K)

Abstract

The villous height to crypt depth (V:C) ratio is one of the most significant parameters which is associated with the nutrients’ absorption and greater body weight. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between V:C ratio, gut bacteria counts and production parameters in broiler chickens. A total of 100 individual broilers were randomly selected from a farm with 40,000 Ross 308 chickens and slaughtered for sampling at three different ages including 14, 28 and 37 day old. Villous height and crypt depth were measured for each section of the small intestine to calculate V:C ratio. Intestinal score and gut microbiology including total coliforms, lactic acid bacteria and Salmonella prevalence were assessed. At day 37, besides those parameters, the carcass, breast, legs and wings were taken for weight measurements. Leg and breast color was also measured. Data were statistically analyzed by STATA software to explore the relationship between V:C and those parameters. The results showed the positive correlation between V:C of duodenum and the number of lactic acid bacteria at 28 days of age (P < 0.05). Moreover, the leg yield was negatively related to the V:C ratio of jejunum (P < 0.05). No significant correlations were found between V:C ratio and other parameters. The results indicated the potential of controlling V:C ratio to improve gut health and meat quality of broiler chickens and thus, further studies should be conducted to fully evaluate these correlations.

Identification of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), type 3 (PCV3) and porcine parvovirus (PPV) in swine by multiplex PCR test

Phat X. Dinh, Trang T. T. Nguyen, Hiep L. X. Vu, & Thoai K. Tran
Electronic version: 30 Jun 2021 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.2.03.2021
Abstract | PDF (583.6K)

Abstract

This study aimed to simultaneously detect three important viruses reported to be involved in the reproductive problems of sows. A multiplex PCR (mPCR) test was developed to provide rapid diagnosis of porcine circovirus type 2 and 3 (PCV2, PCV3) and to illustrate parvovirus (PPV) prevalence in sow herds. Three pairs of specific primers were designed to target PCV2 Cap gene, PCV3 Cap gene and PPV NS1 gene, with predicted mPCR products of 702 bp, 267 bp and 380 bp, respectively. The detection limit of mPCR was 100 copies/reaction per target gene. The mPCR was run against a panel of 94 swine serum samples whose infection status had been pre-determined by commercial real-time PCR kits. Sequencing of mPCR products performed with clinical serum samples accurately confirmed the results. Overall, the results indicated that the mPCR functioned accurately and specifically and matched 100% with the single-target real-time PCRs. The mPCR was developed successfully and can be used in routine diagnosis of PCV2, PCV3 and PPV.

Genetic relationship analysis of Dendrobium anosmum Lindl. var. semialba based on the chloroplast matK and rbcL genes

Dien T. K. Pham, Biet V. Huynh, & Truong Mai
Electronic version: 30 Jun 2021 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.6.03.2021
Abstract | PDF (634.5K)

Abstract

Dendrobium anosmum Lindl. var. semialba has variants of flower shapes. Currently, it has high economic value and is favored on the market. In this study, the genetic relationship of Dendrobium anosmum Lindl. var. semialba species was determined based on the analysis of chloroplast matK, rbcL gene sequences. The matK and rbcL genes of twelve species were amplified and their DNA sequenced. These DNA sequences were compared, calculated genetic distance and constructed phylogenetic tree. The results showed that 100% of samples were amplified and sequenced successfully. The analysis of matK sequences showed that 12 species had very high genetic similarity with the low genetic distance of 0 - 0.001; the nucleotide sequences were almost unchanged except for one variable nucleotide position in TB1 and TB1 was in a separate branch of the phylogenetic tree. The analysis of rbcL sequences showed that all species had a low genetic distance of 0 - 0.012 and had 7 mutant positions in nucleotide sequences of TB1 and TB5. These species were in a separate branch of the phylogenetic tree while the other species were grouped in the other branch of the phylogenetic tree. The study provided a reliable molecular database of the Dendrobium anosmum Lindl. var. semialba for identification, classification, biodiversity assessment and conservation of genetic resources.

Accumulation and distribution of lead (Pb) in different tissues of Lucky bamboo plants (Dracaena sanderiana)

Lien B. Ho, Biet V. Huynh, & Tuyen C. Bui
Electronic version: 30 Jun 2021 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.7.03.2021
Abstract | PDF (1.8M)

Abstract

Lucky bamboo plants (Dracaena sanderiana) were used to study the accumulation and distribution of lead (Pb) in tissues of root, stem and leaf, as well as the impact of lead accumulation on the anatomical structure of these tissues. Dracaena sanderiana plants were exposed to Pb(NO3)2 solution at the Pb concentrations of 0; 200; 400; 600; 800; 1,000; 2,000; 3,000 and 4,000 mg/L for 60 days. The results showed that the more the Pb concentration was used, the more the amount of lead was accumulated and deposited. The tolerance limit of Dracaena sanderiana was 800 mg/L of Pb in water. The lethal concentration for plants was 4,000 mg/L Pb. When the concentrations of Pb in the solution were higher than the tolerance limit of the plant, the growth of Dracaena sanderiana could be inhibited. Dracaena sanderiana could accumulate up to 39,235 mg/kg Pb in the presence of Pb at 800 mg/L. Lead was accumulated mainly in roots (97.5%) and deposited mainly in the cell walls and the spaces between cells in tissues of roots. In the stems and leaves of Dracaena sanderiana, lead accumulation was limited and distributed mainly around vascular bundles. Lead accumulation caused changes in the anatomical structure of root, stem and leaf tissues. The accumulation and distribution of Pb is mainly in the cell walls and the space of cells; it could be a detoxification mechanism for Pb of Dracaena sanderiana.

Influence of spray-drying conditions on the physicochemical properties of red-fleshed dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) powder made from peel and flesh

Diep T. N. Duong, Quan A. Do, Ngoan H. Nguyen, Tram P. N. Pham, Trang L. H. Do, Diep T. N. Duong, & Binh Q. Hoang
Electronic version: 30 Jun 2021 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.8.03.2021
Abstract | PDF (600.7K)

Abstract

Pitaya production has been increasing, that offers abundant material for food processing. New product development would greatly add value for this produce. The present study focused on the effects of spray-drying conditions such as coating material concentration and spray-drying temperature on the physicochemical characteristics of red-fleshed dragon fruit powder made from peel and flesh. The sample quality was influenced by two experimental factors, which were the maltodextrin concentration and the spray-drying inlet temperature. The samples spray-dried at 140oC to 150oC with 15% maltodextrin (w/w) gave the powder with the highest betacyanin, polyphenol, and vitamin C retention results (97.62 - 98.86%, 90.66 - 91.63%, and 63.40 - 63.68%, respectively). The moisture content, water activity and solubility of the sample was 3.88% to 4.27%, 0.26 to 0.28 and 99%, respectively. Red-fleshed dragon fruit powder made from flesh and peel has numerous potentials in the beverage industry.
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    Electronic version: 29 Dec 2017 | DOI: hcmuaf.jen.2017.001
    Abstract | PDF (260.1K)

    Abstract

    Poinsettia plants (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd.) is a flowering potted plant with an high economic value, especially in Christmas and New Year. Conventional propagation of poinsettia by seed and cuttings has several limitations due to genetic variability and a low rate of propagation. This study presents the results of in vitro propagation for poinsettia. Nodal segments with axillary buds were sterilized with javel:distilled water at ratio 1:2 (v/v) in 15 minutes obtained 53.3% cleaned samples. Effect of 6-benzyladenine (BA), naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), gibberellin acid 3 (GA3), indole 3- butyric acid (IBA) on in vitro shoot and root formation was studied. Full- strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 0.5 mg.L-1 BA and 0.1 mgL-1 NAA was the best for shooting (4.8 shoots per explant). Shoots were transferred onto MS medium adding 0.3 mg.L-1 GA for elongation within 4 weeks. The elongated shoots were rooted on half-strength MS medium containing 2 mg.L-1 IBA and plantlets were successfully acclimatized with 75% survival rate.
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    Abstract | PDF (583.6K)

    Abstract

    This study aimed to simultaneously detect three important viruses reported to be involved in the reproductive problems of sows. A multiplex PCR (mPCR) test was developed to provide rapid diagnosis of porcine circovirus type 2 and 3 (PCV2, PCV3) and to illustrate parvovirus (PPV) prevalence in sow herds. Three pairs of specific primers were designed to target PCV2 Cap gene, PCV3 Cap gene and PPV NS1 gene, with predicted mPCR products of 702 bp, 267 bp and 380 bp, respectively. The detection limit of mPCR was 100 copies/reaction per target gene. The mPCR was run against a panel of 94 swine serum samples whose infection status had been pre-determined by commercial real-time PCR kits. Sequencing of mPCR products performed with clinical serum samples accurately confirmed the results. Overall, the results indicated that the mPCR functioned accurately and specifically and matched 100% with the single-target real-time PCRs. The mPCR was developed successfully and can be used in routine diagnosis of PCV2, PCV3 and PPV.
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    Electronic version: 28 Jun 2018 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.10.03.2018
    Abstract | PDF (260.1K)

    Abstract

    Acerola fruit is known to have a high vitamin C concentration. Polyphenolics are also natural oxidants occurring in plants. Understanding changes of these components during storage conditions and processing steps become important. Results of this research showed that there was significant difference in vitamin C and total polyphenolic concentration and three popular varieties of acerola fruits from Tien Giang province. Concentrations of both vitamin C and polyphenolics reduced rapidly during storage at room temperature. After three days, vitamin C reduced about 40% whereas total polyphenolics reduced about 70%. The losses at refrigerated temperature after 3 days were less than 15% and less than 30%, for vitamin C and total polyphenolics, respectively. Frozen storage of the fruit maintained quite well vitamin C and polyphenolics. Acerola pomace juice was concentrated before spray drying and, at the same vacuum pressure, temperatures influenced significantly the retention of vitamin C and total polyphenolics. Optimization of spray drying conditioners including inlet hot air temperatures and added ratio of maltodextrin (drying carrier) was also carried out to obtain high recovery of dry matter, total polyphenolics and vitamin C.
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    Electronic version: 28 Jun 2019 | DOI: 10.52997/jad.4.03.2019
    Abstract | PDF (3.5M)

    Abstract

    The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the efficacyof Marine Sulfated Polysaccharide enhanced by a blend oforganic acids (AseaD) as an alternative to colistin in the diet of broilers. A total of two hundred and sixteen one-day-old male chicks (Ross 308, initial body weight: 42.25±0.42 g/bird) wererandomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments each represented with 12 replicate cages of 9 birds. The dietary treatments included (1) basal diet with antibiotic (Control, basal diet + 20 ppm colistin) and (2) basal diet without antibiotic + 0.3% AseaD (AseaD). Birds in the control were fed a basal diet containing colistin from 1 to 28 days of age only. There were no difference sin ADG and ADFI between the 2 treatments at any phasesor for the overall period (P>0.05). Similarly, no difference sin FCR were found during d 1-28 or the overall period (P>0.05). Nevertheless, the FCR of broilers fed AseaD (1.893) was lower than that of broilers fed the control diet (1.991) from 29 to 42 days of age (P= 0.016). No differences in the survival rate of birds were found between the 2 treatments (P>0.05).These results confirm the potency of AseaD in broiler diets asa potential alternative to colistin used at a concentration of 20ppm, with significant benefits and interest during the finishing period when colistin is withdrawn from a diet.  
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    Electronic version: 29 Dec 2017 | DOI: hcmuaf.jen.2017.005
    Abstract | PDF (260.1K)

    Abstract

    In recent years, consumption of dragon fruits became an issue because of the dramatic increase in domestic production and the production in other countries. So it becomes urgent to develop new products, which can utilize the abundant amount of fresh dragon fruit, and provides a sustainable output for the domestic production. In the present study, we preliminarily developed a processing procedure to manufacture dried dragon fruit. The objectives of the study were (1) to determine if it is advantageous to do osmotic dehydration (OD) before hot air drying, (2) to find out a suitable submerging time if OD was necessary, and (3) to evaluate stability of the product during storage with or without using sodium bisulfite. The results showed that application of OD with a solution of 50% sucrose and 1.5% citric acid led to 6.58% higher in product yield, 8.08% lower in volume contraction, and 3 hours shorter in subsequent hot-air drying. The use of sodium bisulfite by submersion of sample in 0.5 % solution before processing was necessary to prevent the growth of mold and maintain sensorial quality (especially color) of the dried product. The processing procedure developed from this study can be implemented in industry.