Published: 2017-10-13

Antimicrobial and β-agonist residues and contamination of salmonella in pork and chicken consumed in Ho Chi Minh city in 2015

Hoa T. K. Ho, & Du V. Le
Electronic version: 13 Oct 2017 | DOI: hcmuaf.jvn.2017.004
Abstract | PDF (260.1K)

Abstract

A total of 80 pork and 70 chicken samples from different city and provinces arrived in HCMC in the last four months of 2015 were collected for examination of residues of β2-agonists and several antimicrobials, and the presence of Salmonella. Phenotypic and genotypic resistance of the isolates were studied. Of 80 pork samples, sulfadimidine was detected in 14 samples, of which seven contained 103.3 - 10.330 μg/kg. Norfloxacin was detected in three samples. Of 70 chicken samples, norfloxacin was found in two samples, enrofloxacin in 23 samples (32.86%), and florfenicol in 19 (27.14%). Salmonella was found in 61 samples (40.67%). It was showed similar incidence of Salmonella contamination in pork samples derived from abattoirs in HCM and in provinces (43.75%), while Salmonella contamination in samples of chicken slaughtered in provinces was at higher rates than those processed in HCMC abattoirs (43.75% and 31.58%, respectively). Thirty out of 39 (76.92%) isolates were resistant to ampicillin and chloramphenicol. Ciprofloxacine and cefotaxime resistance was relatively low. 58.97% of Salmonella isolates were resistant to 3 or more different antimicrobials. The most frequent co-resistant phenotype observed was to ampicillin, chloramphenicol and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (41.03%). Twenty-nine isolates carried blaTEM gene, and 26 isolates carried qnrS- a plasmid-mediated quinolone resistant gene. Importantly, 21 (53.85%) isolates were detected carrying both genes. The results showed reduction in β2-agonist and antibiotic residues compared to those monitored in previous periods of time. However, contamination of Salmonella still remains at high levels and resistance to β-lactam and quinolone groups seems alarmingly spreading throughout different city/provinces.

A CURRENT SITUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT AND PROPOSAL OF ECO-SOLUTIONS FOR INDUSTRIAL PARKS IN TIEN GIANG PROVINCE

Hung T. Q. Nguyen, Le A. Hoang, Ky M. Nguyen, & Truc K. Nguyen
Electronic version: 13 Oct 2017 | DOI: hcmuaf.jvn.2017.003
Abstract | PDF (260.1K)

Abstract

The objectives of the study were to assess the current situation and proposing solutions of waste management in enterprises in Tien Giang industrial parks and areas. The researching results showed that the total amount of industrial waste, household waste and hazardous waste were 124,043 kg/day, 15,871 kg/day and 952 kg/day, respectively. The amount of reusable waste such as scrap iron, plastic, carton were 1,891 kg/day, 12,143 kg/day and 40,033 kg/day, respectively. On that basis, the study proposed models of waste management to help the enterprises manage waste effectively by saving resources, reducing waste disposal costs incurred in production. Estimating the cost-effectiveness of waste reuse activities was equal to 42,732,400 VND/day.The proposed models aimed to help the enterprises in industrial parks and areas enhance the effectiveness of environment management by saving resources, reducing waste disposal costs in production, increasing profits, and protecting the surrounding environment.

Air pollutants estimated from rice straw open burning in Hanoi

Hung T. Q. Nguyen, Le A. Hoang, & Anh V. Tran
Electronic version: 13 Oct 2017 | DOI: hcmuaf.jvn.2017.005
Abstract | PDF (260.1K)

Abstract

Crop residue burning including rice straw after harvesting is a common farming practice in Vietnam. This activity releases many pollutants causing serious pollution to the ambient air and effecting human health. Recently, rice straw open burning in the suburban fields of Hanoi has had many adverse impacts to the air quality of the inner city. Based on the rice production data in 2015, the total annual average amount of rice straw was estimated 40 million tons. According to the field survey, the average proportion of rice straw burned in the field was around 44%. The total amount of pollutants were emitted as CO2 (419,889.1 tons), CO (8865.1 tons); NMVOC (3565.6tons); PM2.5 (3466.7tons)NOx (1402.1 tons); OC (779.7 tons); CH4 (263.6tons); EC (208.7tons); NH3 (194 tons); and SO2 (58.6tons). The results of emission inventory of this research show that CO2 is the largest emitted component accounting for 91.5%, following by CO for 6.3%, and other pollutants for 2.2%. In year 2015, gas emission from rice straw open burning was highly concentrated in Ung Hoa, Ba Vi, and Chuong My districts.

IN VITRO ANTAGONISTIC PROPERTIES OF SELECTED Trichoderma STRAINS AGAINST Phytopythium helicoides

Oanh T. T. Vu, & Trang T. D. Luu
Electronic version: 13 Oct 2017 | DOI: hcmuaf.jvn.2017.002
Abstract | PDF (260.1K)

Abstract

In recently years, root rot disease of cassava appears and caused severe damage on cassava plant. This disease affected to growth of plant, and results in 15% -20% yield loss. The results of morphological identification revealed that Phytopythium helicoides was the main factor causing root rot of cassava which was original from soil, and caused broad spectrum plants. With the habit growing specialize plant in poorly drained soils, using chemical fertilizers, non using organic fertilizer or sanitation had created opportunity for diseases accumulating in soil from year to year. That caused critical situation when the weather was optimum for disease development. At present, root rot disease of cassava only appear and damage on Tay Ninh province, so there were very few study about it. To have scientific data about disease factor as well as biological control, using antagonistic fungus to inhibit Phytopythium helicoides had been studied. The result reported that selected Trichoderma strains using in experiment have effected antagonistic from 59% to 69%.

THE EFFECT OF CALCIUM CONCENTRATIONS ON FRUIT CRACKING PHENOMENON OF MUSKMELON (Cucumis melo L.) GROWN IN THE PLASTIC HOUSE

Hiet D. Hoang, , Dan T. Vu, Duong H. B. Le, Tuan Q. Huynh, Lam V. Tran, Nghia H. Dang, & Thu T. M. Duong
Electronic version: 13 Oct 2017 | DOI: hcmuaf.jvn.2017.007
Abstract | PDF (260.1K)

Abstract

To determine the appropriate Ca concentration in the nutrient solution fertigating to the muskmelon cultivated in the plastic house to ensure high yield and reduce fruit cracking, the single factor Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) experiment was conducted with Chu Phan cultivar at Center for Agricultural Research and Development of Agricultural High Technology Ho Chi Minh City. The results showed that using 160 ppm Ca in nutrient solution combined with 3-time foliar spraying of Ca(H2PO4)2 0.3% (at 28, 38 and 48 days after planting) gave the best results in fruit length (19.6 cm), fruit diameter (17.6 cm), average fruit weight (1.68 kg/fruit), potential yield (35.42 tons/ha) absolute yield (33.42 tons/ha), and fruit cracking rate (3.53%).

Survey of pesticide use on pak-choi, leaf mustard and green onions in Thanh Hoi commune, Tan Uyen distric, Binh Duong province

Tam T. M. Pham, & Duyen T. M. Ho
Electronic version: 13 Oct 2017 | DOI: hcmuaf.jvn.2017.008
Abstract | PDF (260.1K)

Abstract

A survey was conducted from March to July in 2014 to understand the status of pesticide use (kinds of pesticides and rate of application) on green onion, pak-choi and leaf mustard based on the 45 selected farmer responses. Padan 95 SP (a.i: Cartap), Brightin 1.8 EC (a.i: Abamectin), Dupont Prevathon 35 WG (a.i: Chlorantraniliprole) were the most common insecticides. The rate of Brightin 1.8 EC applied on leaf mustard were 1.25 times higher than the recommended dose. Ridomil Gold 68 WG (a.i: Mancozeb 64% + Metalaxyl-M 4%) and Antracol 70 WP (a.i: Propineb) were the major fungicides for controlling diseases on selected crops. Higher dosages of Ridomil Gold 68 WG were applied on green onion and leaf mustard than recommeded doses. Dosages of Antracol 70 WP applied on leaf mustard were 1.4 times higher than the recommended dose.

EFFECTS OF NAA CONCENTRATION AND ROOTING SUBSTRATES ON VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION OF ROSEMARY (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) CUTTINGS

Tam T. M. Pham, & Phuong T. B. Nguyen
Electronic version: 13 Oct 2017 | DOI: hcmuaf.jvn.2017.006
Abstract | PDF (260.1K)

Abstract

Rosemary, original from Mediterranean, is widely used in scenic decoration, food and pharmacy industries. Rosemary is mainly propagated by cuttings. However, rosemary cuttings do not have a high rooting rate. A two-factorial experiment was laid out in Complete Randomized Design (CRD) with twenty treatments, three replications. Five NAA concentrations (0 ppm (Control), 1.500, 3.000, 4.500, 6.000 ppm) in combination with 4 rooting substrates (100% sand (Control); 70% sand + 25% rice husk ash; 50% sand + 25% rice husk ash + 25% coco peat; 25% sand + 25% rice husk ash + 50% coco peat) were evaluated. The results showed that the highest mean root number of rosemary cuttings was observed in the substrate (50% sand + 25% rice husk ash + 25% coco peat) in combination with the NAA concentration 3.000 ppm.