Tuan Q. Le * , & Vuong K. Nguyen

* Correspondence: Le Quoc Tuan (email: quoctuan@hcmuaf.edu.vn)

Main Article Content

Abstract

Surface water from rivers plays a significant role in socio-economic development in Ca Mau Province. It supplies freshwater for agriculture and aquaculture. Faced with the pressures of development, surface water quality in Ca Mau Province has been being at stake. The aim of this paper is to assess the water quality status and wastewater receiving capacity of the main rivers of Ca Mau Province. The monitoring results and calculated Water Quality Index (WQI) indicated that almost surface water in Ca Mau Province was heavily polluted and did not meet the irrigation purpose. Most rivers and canals in Ca Mau City were not able to receive any more contaminant loads of COD, BOD5, N-NH4+, and P-PO43-. To protect the water resource for sustainable development, consequently, it is important to propose water management solutions for the local government to regulate wastewater discharge into surface water bodies in Ca Mau Province.

Keywords: Ca Mau, Management, Surface water, Water quality, WQI

Article Details

References

Akoteyon, I. S., Omotayo, A. O., Soladoye, O., & Olaoye, H. O. (2011). Determination of water quality index and suitability of urban river for municipal water supply in Lagos, Nigeria. European Journal of Scientific Research 54(2), 263–271.

Balan, I. N., Shivakumar, M., & Kumar, P. D. M. (2012). An assessment of groundwater quality using water quality index in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Chronicles of Young Scientists 3(2), 146–150.

Bhutiani, R., Khanna, D. R., Kulkarni, D. B., & Ruhela, M. (2014). Assessment of Ganga river ecosystem at Haridwar, Uttarakhand, India with reference to water quality indices. Applied Water Science, doi: 10.1007/ s13201-014-0206-6.

Bordalo, A. A., Nilsumranchi, W., & Chalermwat, K. (2001). Water quality and uses of the Bangpakong river (Eastern Thailand). Water Research 35: 3535-3642.

Cude, C. (2001). Oregon water quality index: a tool for evaluating water quality management effectiveness. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 37: 125-137.

Dash, A., Das, H. K., Mishra, B., & Bhuyan, N. K. (2015). Evaluation of water quality of local streams and Baitarani River in Joda area of Odisha, India. International Journal of Current Research 7(3), 13559–13568.

Diederik, T.V.M., Auke, B., & Paul, C. M. B. (1998). Agricultural Nutrient Losses to Surface Water in the Netherlands: Impact, Strategies, and Perspectives. Journal of Environmental Quality 27 (1) 4-11.

Divya, A. H., & Solomon, P.A. (2016). Effects of Some Water Quality Parameters Especially Total Coliform and Fecal Coliform in Surface Water of Chalakudy River. Procedia Technology 24, 631-638.

GSO (General Statistics Office). (2018). Statistical summary book of Vietnam 2018. Hanoi, Vietnam: Statistical Publishing House.

Hong, P. N., & San, H. T. (1993). Mangroves in Vietnam. Bangkok, Thailand: IUCN (The International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources).

Jonnalagadda, S. B., & Mhere, G. (2001). Water quality of the Odzi river in the eastern highlands of Zimbabwe. Water Research 35: 2371-2376.

MONRE (Vietnam Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment). (2017). Circular 76/2017/TT-BTNMT: Regulate principles of assessing the capacity of receiving waste water of rivers and lakes. Hanoi, Vietnam.

MONRE (Vietnam Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment). (2015). QCVN 08-MT: 2015/BTNMT: Vietnam National technical regulation on surface water quality. Hanoi, Vietnam.

Nguyen, T. T., & Nguyen, T. L. (2018). Evaluating water quality and recommending measures to control the pollution of sai gon river section flowing through Thu Dau Mot city. Thu Dau Mot University Journal of Science 2(37), 32-39 (in Vietnamese).

Nguyen, V. H., Pham, N. A. T., Nguyen, M. H., Thuy, C. T., & Nguyen, M. C. (2010).  Assessment of Bo river water quality in Thua Thien Hue province based on water quality index (WQI). Hue University Journal of Science 58, 77-85 (in Vietnamese).

Reddy, K. R., & DeLaune, R. D. (2008). Biogeochemistry of Wetlands Science and Applications. Boca Ratón, USA: CRC Press.

Simeonov, V., Stratis, J.A., Samara, C., Zachariadis, G., Voutsa, D., Anthemidis, A., Sofoniou, M., & Kouimtzis, T. (2003). Assessment of the surface water quality in Northern Greece. Water Research 37(17), 4119-4124.

 

Tirkey, P., Bhattacharya, T., & Chakraborty, S. (2013). Water quality indices - important tools for water quality assessment: A review. International Journal of Advances in Chemistry 1(1), 15-29.

VEA (Vietnam Environment Administration). (2011). Decision No 1460/QĐ/TCMT dated on November 12th, 2019 on the issuance of the technical guidelines for calculation and publication of Vietnam’s water quality index (VN_WQI). Hanoi, Vietnam.

Vo, D. L., Huynh, L. T., & Vo, D. Q. (2015). Assessment of surface water in Ca Mau Province. Science and Technology Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development, 124-130.

Yadav, K. K., Gupta, N., Kumar, V., Sharma, S., & Arya, S. (2015). Water quality assessment of Pahuj River using water quality index at Unnao Balaji, M.P., India. International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research 19(1), 241–250.