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After years of experimenting, the “One must do, five reductions” (1M5R) (in Vietnam referred to as 1P5G) is being promoted by Vietnam’s Department of Crop Production as an advanced technique in rice production. Nevertheless, a certain proportion of rice farmers in the Mekong Delta are reluctant to implement 1M5R. This study collected data from 116 rice farming households in Soc Trang province to assess factors influencing the decision to adopt the new technique. The result showed that the 1M5R model offers better economic efficiency than the traditional producing model in terms of profit, revenue/cost ratio, and profit/cost ratio. The estimated Binary Logistic model revealed that labor, production experience, and production area significantly contribute to farmers’ adoption of 1M5R. These results are empirical evidence of the potential of 1M5R, which supporting its promotion in Vietnam’s Mekong River Delta
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