Thuy N. Nguyen * , & Anh H. Hoang

* Correspondence: Nguyen Ngoc Thuy (email:

Main Article Content


After years of experimenting, the “One must do, five reductions” (1M5R) (in Vietnam referred to as 1P5G) is being promoted by Vietnam’s Department of Crop Production as an advanced technique in rice production. Nevertheless, a certain proportion of rice farmers in the Mekong Delta are reluctant to implement 1M5R. This study collected data from 116 rice farming households in Soc Trang province to assess factors influencing the decision to adopt the new technique. The result showed that the 1M5R model offers better economic efficiency than the traditional producing model in terms of profit, revenue/cost ratio, and profit/cost ratio. The estimated Binary Logistic model revealed that labor, production experience, and production area significantly contribute to farmers’ adoption of 1M5R. These results are empirical evidence of the potential of 1M5R, which supporting its promotion in Vietnam’s Mekong River Delta

Article Details


Abakemal, D., Hussein, S., Derera, J., & Laing, M. (2013). Farmers’ perceptions of maize production systems and breeding priorities, and their implications for the adoption of new varieties in selected areas of the highland Agro-ecology of Ethiopia. Journal of Agricultural Science, 5(11). doi:10.5539/jas.v5n11p159

Anh, H. H., Da Hanh, T. M., & Shunbo, Y. (2019). Assessment of the Household’s Flood Social Vulnerability in Vietnam’s Mekong River Delta. Journal of Applied Sciences & Environmental Management, 22(2). Retrieved from

Chau, N. D. G., Sebesvari, Z., W, A., & Renaud, F. G. (2015). Pesticide pollution of multiple drinking water sources in themekong delta, vietnam: evidence from two provinces. Envi-Ronmental Science and Pollution, (22), 9042–9058.

Chi, T. T. N., Anh, T. T. T., Tuyen, T. Q., Palis, F., Singleton, G., & Van Toan, N. (2013). Implementation of “one must and five reductions” in rice production, in An Giang province. Omonrice, 19, 237–249.

Connor, M., de Guia, A. H., Quilloy, R., Van Nguyen, H., Gummert, M., & Sander, B. O. (2020). When climate change is not psychologically distant – Factors influencing the acceptance of sustainable farming practices in the Mekong river Delta of Vietnam. World Development Perspectives, 18, 100204.

Connor, M., Tuan, L. A., DeGuia, A. H., & Wehmeyer, H. (2021). Sustainable rice production in the Mekong River Delta: Factors influencing farmers’ adoption of the integrated technology package “One Must Do, Five Reductions” (1M5R). Outlook on Agriculture, 50(1), 90–104.

Cramb, R. A. (2000). Processes influencing the successful adoption of new technologies by smallholders (pp. 433–2016–33502). pp. 433–2016–33502.

Dessart, F. J., J, B.-H., & Van Bavel, R. (2019). Behaviouralfactors affecting the adoption of sustainable farming practices:a policy-oriented review.

Ekane, N., Mertz, C. K., Slovic, P., Kjellén, M., & Westlund, H. (2016). Risk and benefit judgment of excreta as fertilizer in agriculture: An exploratory investigation in Rwanda and Uganda. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22(3), 639–666.

Feola, G., Lerner, A. M., & Jain, M. (2015). Researching farmerbehaviour in climate change adaptation and sustainable agri-culture: lessons learned from five case studies.

General Statistics Office of Viet Nam. (2021). National statistical data [Data set]. Retrieved from

Ha Anh, H., Da Hanh, T. M., Thi Tuong Vi, N., & Shunbo, Y. (2018). Examining the interaction of flood vulnerability determinants in Cambodia and Vietnam using partial least squares structural equation modeling. Water Policy, 20(6), 1256–1278.

Hoang-Phi, P., Nguyen-Kim, T., Nguyen-Van-Anh, V., Lam-Dao, N., Le-Van, T., & Pham-Duy, T. (2021). Rice yield estimation in An Giang province, the Vietnamese Mekong Delta using Sentinel-1 radar remote sensing data. IOP Conference Series. Earth and Environmental Science, 652(1), 012001.

Ngoan, T. N., & Howeler, R. H. (2007). The adoption of new technologies and the socio-economic impact of the Nippon Foundation cassava project in Vietnam.

Pandey, K., Bargali, S. S., & Kolhe, S. S. (2011). Adoption of technology by rural women in rice based agroecosystem. International Rice Research Notes.

Stuart, A. M., Devkota, K. P., Sato, T., Pame, A. R. P., Balingbing, C., My Phung, N. T., … Singleton, G. R. (2018). On-farm assessment of different rice crop management practices in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, using sustainability performance indicators. Field Crops Research, 229, 103–114.

Tho, L. C. B., Dung, L. C., & Umetsu, C. (2021). “One must do, five reductions” technical practice and the economic performance of rice smallholders in the Vietnamese Mekong delta. Sustainable Production and Consumption, 28, 1040–1049.

Thuy, N. N., & Anh, H. H. (2015). Vulnerability of rice production in Mekong River Delta under impacts from floods, salinity and climate change. International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology, 5(4). doi:10.18517/ijaseit.5.4.545

Wehmeyer, H., de Guia, A. H., & Connor, M. (2020). Reduction of Fertilizer Use in South China—Impacts and Implications on Smallholder Rice Farmers. Sustainability: Science Practice and Policy, 12(6), 1–21.