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This article aimed to investigate the forest structural characteristics, tree species diversity for plant communities of the tropical moist evergreen close forest and distribution of medicinal plant species at Ta Kou nature reserve, Binh Thuan province. In this research, the structural characteristics and tree species diversity were analyzed from data collected from 20 typical plots with the size of 0.1 hectares. The location of medicinal plant species is identifed by GPS through the route survey method. Research results show that IVi% index of dominant and co-dominant tree groups accounting for 26.4%. The number of trees is most concentrated in class D1.3 < 20 cm and H < 10 m. The basal area and volume are mainly concentrated in class D1.3 = 20 - 40 cm and H < 10 m. In the study area, 47 species of 27 plant families were found, in which the Dipterocarpaceae family has the most species; 28 medicinal plant species belong to 24 families, one of which is typical for the study area named “Thay Thim” tree (Olax obtuse Blume) and some other species are rare and threatened with extinction in Vietnam such as Streptocaulon juventas (Lour.) Merr., Eurycoma longifolia Jack, Stemona collinsae Craib, Drynaria bonii H. Christ.
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