Main Article Content
The aims of the study were to look into the quantities of live beneficial microorganisms and antibiotic resistance of bacterial strains in several probiotic products used for food animals in the market. Ten probiotic products that claim to contain beneficial bacteria and fungi were examined. Eight products are said on the label to contain Lactobacillus spp., nine contain Bacillus spp., five contain yeasts and two have molds. The results showed that eight products did not have the microbial quantities or/and composition of microorganisms as saying on their labels. Of eight products which claim to contain Lactobacillus spp., the bacteria were isolated from only four, of which three had Lactobacillus counts at least ten-fold as low as the numbers on the labels. Spore-forming bacilli were isolated from all nine Bacillus-containing products. However, two products had the bacterial counts at least 10-fold as low as the numbers printed on the labels. Among five products stated to contain yeasts, the organisms were recovered from samples of only one. Seven Lactobacillus and fifteen Bacillus isolates from all samples that had bacterial growth were tested for their susceptibility against seven common antibiotics using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. The results revealed that all the Lactobacillus isolates showed susceptibility to the tested antibiotics except kanamycin. All 15 Bacillus isolates were susceptible to ampicillin, kanamycin, and ciprofloxacin; five isolates were intermediately resistant to tetracycline; one isolates resisted erythromycin, and one isolates was resistant to vancomycin. The results of this study would provide information for farm practice in choosing antibiotics used together with antibiotics to maintain or/and restore the gut microflora after antibiotic treatment.
Alayande, K. A., Aiyegoro, O. A., & Ateba C. N. (2020). Probiotics in animal husbandry: Application and associated risk factors. Sustainability 12(3), 1087.
Anisimova, E. A., & Yarullina, D. R. (2019). Antibiotic resistance of Lactobacillus strains. Current Microbiology 76(12), 1407-1416.
Binda, S., Hill, C., Johansen, E., Obis, D., Pot, B., Sanders, M. E., Tremblay, A., & Ouwehand, A. C. (2020). Criteria to qualify microorganisms as "probiotic” in foods and dietary supplements. Frontiers in Microbiology 11, 1662.
De Man, J. C., Rogosa M., & Sharpe M. I. (1960). A medium for the cultivation of lactobacilli. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 23(1), 130-135.
De Simone, C. (2019). The unregulated probiotic market. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology 17(5), 809-817.
FAO/WHO (Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization). (2002). Guidelines for the evaluation of probiotics in food. Paris, France: FAO.
Gorsuch, J. P., Jones, Z., Le Saint, D., & Kitts, C. L. (2019). Enumeration of industrial Bacillus assemblages in commercial products with customized plate-counting assays. Journal of Microbiological Methods 164, 105682.
Gueimonde, M., S´anchez, B., de los Reyes-Gavila´n, C. G., & Margolles, A. (2013). Antibiotic resistance in probiotic bacteria. Frontiers in Microbiology 4, 202.
Jang, K., Lee, J., Lee, H., Kim, S., Ha, J., Choi, Y., Oh, H., Yoon, Y., & Lee, S. (2018). Pathogenic characteristics and antibiotic resistance of bacterial isolates from farmstead cheeses. Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources 38(1), 203-208.
Ladiges, W. C., Foster, J. F., & Jorgensen II, J. J. (1974). Comparison of media for enumerating fungi in pre-cooked frozen convenience foods. Journal of Milk and Food Technology 37(6), 302-304.
Le, Y. T. H., & Nguyen, H. D. (2016). Evaluation of the probiotic properties of Bacillus subtilis strains isolated from the Mekong Delta. Can Tho University Journal of Science 2, 26-32.
Sharma, C., Gulati, S., Thakur, N., Singh, B. P., Gupta, S., Kaur, S., Mishra, S. K., Puniya, A. K., Gill, J. P. S., & Panwar, H. (2017). Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of indigenous lactobacilli isolated from curd and human milk samples. Biotech 7(1), 53.
Sharma, P., Tomar, S. K., Goswami, P., Sangwan, V., & Singh, R. (2014). Antibiotic resistance among commercially available probiotics. Food Research International 57, 176-195.
Tansuphasiri, U., Khaminthakul, D., & Pandii, W. (2006). Antibiotic resistance of enterococci isolated from frozen foods and environmental water. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 37, 162-170.