Main Article Content
The villous height to crypt depth (V:C) ratio is one of the most significant parameters which is associated with the nutrients’ absorption and greater body weight. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between V:C ratio, gut bacteria counts and production parameters in broiler chickens. A total of 100 individual broilers were randomly selected from a farm with 40,000 Ross 308 chickens and slaughtered for sampling at three different ages including 14, 28 and 37 day old. Villous height and crypt depth were measured for each section of the small intestine to calculate V:C ratio. Intestinal score and gut microbiology including total coliforms, lactic acid bacteria and Salmonella prevalence were assessed. At day 37, besides those parameters, the carcass, breast, legs and wings were taken for weight measurements. Leg and breast color was also measured. Data were statistically analyzed by STATA software to explore the relationship between V:C and those parameters. The results showed the positive correlation between V:C of duodenum and the number of lactic acid bacteria at 28 days of age (P < 0.05). Moreover, the leg yield was negatively related to the V:C ratio of jejunum (P < 0.05). No significant correlations were found between V:C ratio and other parameters. The results indicated the potential of controlling V:C ratio to improve gut health and meat quality of broiler chickens and thus, further studies should be conducted to fully evaluate these correlations.
Ashgar, A., Gray, J. I., Miller, E. R., Ku, P. K., Booren, A. M., & Buckley, D. J. (1991). Influence of supranutritional vitamin E supplementation in the feed on swine growth, performance and deposition in different tissues. Journal of Science of Food and Agriculture 57(1), 19-29. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740570103
Aviagen. (2018). Ross broiler management hand-book. Retrieved December 22, 2018, from Ross-BroilerHandbook2018-EN.pdf (aviagen.com)
Awad, W. A., Ghareeb, K., Abdel-Raheem, S., & Bohm, J. (2009). Effects of dietary inclusion of probiotic and synbiotic on growth performance, organ weights, and intestinal histomorphology of broiler chickens. Poultry Science 88(1), 49-56. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2008-00244
Blanch, A., & Hernandez, J. M. (2000). Red carotenoids for optimal yolk pigmentation. Feed Mix 8(6), 9-12.
Chichlowski, M., Croom, W. J., Edens, F. W., McBride, B. W., Qiu, R., Chiang, C. C., Daniel, L. R., Havenstein, G. B., & Koci, M. D. (2007). Microarchitecture and spatial relationship between bacteria and ileal, cecal and colonic epithelium in chicks fed a direct-fed microbial, Primalac, and Salinomycin. Poultry Science 86(6), 1121-1132. https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/86.6.1121
Choe, D. W., Loh, T. C., Foo, H. L., Hair-Bejo, M., & Awis, Q. S. (2012). Egg production, faecal pH and microbial population, small intestine morphology, and plasma and yolk cholesterol in laying hens given liquid metabolites produced by Lactobacillus plantarum strains. British Poultry Science 53(1), 106-115. https://doi.org/10.1080/00071668.2012.659653
Demir, E., Sarica, S., Ozcan, M. A., & Suicmez, M. (2003). The use of natural feed additives as alternatives for an antibiotic growth promoter in broiler diet. British Poultry Science 44(sup 1), 44-45. https://doi.org/10.1080/713655288
Galin¸a, D., Ansonska, L., & Valdovska, A. (2020). Effect of probiotics and herbal products on intestinal histomorphological and immunological development in piglets. Veterinary Medicine International 2020, 3461768. https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/3461768
Hairbejo, M. (1990). Gastrointestinal response to copper excess, studies on copper (and zinc) loaded rats (Unpublished doctoral dissertion). University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom.
Horn, N. L., Donkin, S. S., Applegate, T. J., & Adeola, O. (2009). Intestinal mucin dynamics, response of broiler chicks and white pekin ducklings to dietary threonine. Poultry Science 88(9), 1906-1914. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2009-00009
Hosseini, S., Chamani, M., Seidavi, A., Sadeghi, A. A., & Ansari-Pirsaraei, Z. (2017). Effect of feeding Thymolina® powder on the carcass characteristics and morphology of small intestine in ross 308 broiler chickens. Acta Scientiarum Animal Sciences 39(1), 45-50. https://doi.org/10.4025/actascianimsci.v39i1.32074
Iwashita, J., Yukita, S., Hiroko, S., Nagatomo, T., Hiroshi, S., & Tatsuya, A. (2003). mRNA of MUC2 is stimulated by IL-4, IL-13 or TNF-α through a mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in human colon cancer cells. Immunology and Cell Biology 81(4), 275-282. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1440-1711.2003.t01-1-01163.x
Kauffman, R. G., Eikelenboom, G., Van der Wal, P. G., Merkus, G., & Zaar, M. (1986). The use of filter paper to estimate drip loss of porcine musculature. Meat Science 18(3), 191-200. https://doi.org/10.1016/0309-1740(86)90033-1
Kelly, D., Smyth, J. A., & McCracken, K. J. (1991). Digestive development of the early-weaned pig. 1. Effect of continuous nutrient supply on the development of the digestive tract and on changes in digestive enzyme activity during the first week post-weaning. British Journal of Nutrition 65(2), 169-180. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19910078
Kim, J. E., Clark, R. M., Park, Y., Lee, J., & Fernandez, M. L. (2012). Lutein decreases oxidative stress and inflammation in liver and eyes of guinea pigs fed a hypercholesterolemic diet. Nutrition Research Practice 6(2), 113-119. https://doi.org/10.4162/nrp.2012.6.2.113
Liao, X., Shao, Y., Sun, G., Yang, Y., Zhang, L., Guo, Y., Luo, X., & Lu, L. (2020). The relationship among gut microbiota, short-chain fatty acids, and intestinal morphology of growing and healthy broilers. Poultry Science 99(11), 5883-5895. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2020.08.033
Lloyd, H. L. (1970). The site of absorption of xanthophylls and factors affecting pigmentation of chickens, egg yolks, and products made from egg yolks (Unpublished doctoral dissertion). University of Tennessee, Knoxville, United States.
Lu, T., Harper, A. F., Dibner, J. J., Scheffler, J. M., Corl, B. A., Estenne, M. J., Zhao, J., & Dalloul, R. A. (2014). Supplementing antioxidants to pigs fed diets high in oxidants: II. Effects on carcass characteristics, meat quality, and fatty acid profile. Journal of Animal Science 92(12), 5464-5475. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2013-7112
Pluske, J. R., Tompson, M. J., Atwood, C. S., Bird, P. H., Williams, I. H., & Hartmann, P. E. (1996). Maintenance of villus height and crypt depth, and enhancement of disaccharide digestion and monosaccharide absorption, in piglets fed on cow’s whole milk after weaning. British Journal of Nutrition 76(3), 409-422. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19960046
Prakatur, I., Miˇskulin, M., Pavic, M., Marjanovic, K., Blazicevic, V., Miskulin, I., & Domacinovic, M. (2019). Intestinal morphology in broiler chickens supplemented with propolis and bee pollen. Animals 9(6), 301. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9060301
Thanh, N. T., Loh, T. C., Foo, H. L., Hair-Bejo, M., & Azhar, B. K. (2009). Effects of feeding metabolite combinations produced by Lactobacillus plantarum on growth performance, faecal microbial population, small intestine villus height and faecal volatile fatty acids in broilers. British Poultry Science 50(3), 298-306. https://doi.org/10.1080/00071660902873947
Uni, Z., Gal-Garber, O., Geyra, A., Sklan, D., & Yahav, S. (2001). Change in the growth and function of chick small intestine epithelium due to early thermal conditioning. Poultry Science 80(4), 438-445. https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/80.4.438
Van Nevel, C. J., Decuypere, J. A., Dierick, N. A., & Molly, K. (2005). Incorporation of galactomannans in the diet of newly weaned piglets, effect on bacteriological and some morphological characteristics of the small intestine. Archives of Animal Nutrition 59(2), 123-138. https://doi.org/10.1080/17450390512331387936