Thinh V. D. Nguyen * , Huong N. T. Huynh , Mai N. H. Nguyen , & Thao V. Ngo

* Correspondence: Nguyen Vu Duc Thinh (email:

Main Article Content


The main objective of this study was to examine the efficacy and capacity of using hydroponic systems in municipal  pollutant removal at household scale. Three pilot scaled hydroponic systems [dimensionfor each system: 4.5 m (L) x Φ 114 mm] were installed to investigate the optimal age of vegetable, planting density and retention time for household wastewater treatment, respectively. Water spinach (Ipomoeaaquatica) planted in 27 plastic cups throughout 4.5-m-length and 114- mm-diameter uPVC pipes filled with wastewater was employed as the treating agent of pollutants. The averaged influent contained proximately 32.5 mg/L suspended solids (SS), 76.0 mg/L biological oxygen demand (BOD5), 220.5 mg/L chemical oxygen demand (COD), 26mg/L NH4+, 5.0 mg/L NO3, and 8.5 mg/L PO43− at pH 7.3. Results showed that a designed system consisting of 10 plants of 15-day-old water spinach pre-planted in baked clay in each cup was capable oftreating 30 L of domestic wastewater meeting the current municipal wastewater discharge standards in Vietnam (column A standards of QCVN 14:2008/BTNMT) after 4 days of wastewater retention time. Ifoperated under conditions of the above parameters, the pilot-plant hydroponic system can achieve the removal of 65% SS, 82% BOD5, 74% COD, 90% NH4+, 30% NO3 and 86% PO43−. The result of this studyhas provided an applicable domestic wastewater treatment system ecofriendly and suitable for small and medium household areas.

Keywords: Domestic wastewater, Household, Hydroponics, Wastewater treatment, Water spinach

Article Details


Dai, X., Guo, Y., Qian, H., Hu, W., & Chen, W. (2012). The purification effect of three vegetables and different cultivation on aquaculture water from shrimp pond. Journal of Shanghai Ocean University 21(5), 777-783.

Gu, G. P., Zhou, L. Y., & Wang, S. (2008). Primary Study on the Removal Efficiency of Nitrogen and Phosphorus of Eutrophic Water Body by Planted Float Ipomoea Aquatica Forsk. Auhui Agricultural Science Bulletin 14(19), 134-137.

Hoang, H. V., & Tran, H. D. (2014). Drainage (II): Wastewater treatment. Science and Technology Publishers, Vietnam, 359-367.

Kanabkaew, T., & Puetpaiboon, U. (2004). Aquatic plants for domestic wastewater treatment: Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) and Hydrilla ( Hydrillaverticillata ) systems. Songklanakarin Journal Science Technology 26(5), 749-756.

Li, W., & Li, Z. (2009). In situ nutrient removal from aquaculture wastewater by aquatic vegetable Ipomoea aquatica on floating beds. Water Science Technology 59(10), 1937-1943.

Luong, P. D. (2011). Wastewater treatment technology using biological methods. Vietnam: Education Publishers.

MONRE (Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment of Vietnam). (2016). The National Environmental Situation Report, 52-54.

Patnaik, S. (1976). Autecology of Impomoea aquatica Forsk. Journal of Inland Fisheries Society of India 8, 77-82.

Paul, J., & Cay, B. (1990). Home Hydroponics. New York, USA: Crown Publishers.

VEA (Vietnam Environment Administration). (2010). Wastewater treatment by Buffalo Spinach and Hyacinth. Retrieved February 15, 2018, from binh.aspx.

Vymazal, J., & Kröpfelová, L. (2009). Removal of organics in constructed wetlands with horizontal subsurface flow: a review of the field experience. Science Total Environment 407(13), 3911-3922.

Xu, H., Chen, H. Z., Xiong, Q. Q., & Wang, B. Z. (1999). Studies on the Efficiencies and Mechanisms of N and P Removal in Macrohydrophyte Ponds. Journal of Harbin University of Civil Engineering and Architecture 32(4), 33-47.