Uyen N. H. Truong , Giang T. Tran , & Bach T. Nguyen *

* Correspondence: Nguyen Trong Bach (email:

Main Article Content


The effects of changing in composition and adding of coconut oil and milk powder on physical states and rheological properties of cocoa powder/cocoa butter mixtures were investigated. The aim of this study is to keep the product quality at the right temperature and then consumer’s acceptance. The viscosity, hardness and the solidification temperature of cocoa powder/cocoa butter mixtures reduced when cocoa butter content increased or cocoa butter was replaced by coconut oil, or cocoa powder was replaced by milk powder. The viscosity (at 31oC and 50oC) significantly decreased in accordance with an increase in cocoa butter (from 40 to 50%), addition of coconut oils (from 10 to 20%) and replacement of cocoa powder by milk powder (from 5 to 10%) by weight. The cutting and breaking hardness of mixtures (at 10oC and 20oC) decreased sharply when the cocoa butter content was more than 50% of the mixture by weight. The solidification temperature of mixtures decreased from 24oC to 20oC when the coconut oil ratio increased from 20% to 40% of mixture weight.

Keywords: Cocoa powder/cocoa butter, Coconut oil, Hardness, Milk powder, Viscosity

Article Details


Ačkar, Đ., Škrabal, S., Šubarić, D., Babić, J., Miličević, B., & Jozinović, A. (2015). Rheological properties of milk chocolates as influenced by milk powder type, emulsifier, and cocoa butter equivalent additions. International Journal of Food Properties 18(7), 1568-1574.

Afoakwa, E. O., Paterson, A., & Fowler, M. (2007). Factors influencing rheological and textural qualities in chocolate - a review. Trends in Food Science and Technology 18(6), 290-298.

Afoakwa, E. O., Paterson, A., Fowler, M., & Vieira, J. (2009). Microstructure and mechanical properties related to particle size distribution and composition in dark chocolate. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 44(1), 111-119.

Afoakwa, E. O., Paterson, A., Fowler, M., & Vieira, J. (2008). Characterization of melting properties in dark chocolates from varying particle size distribution and composition using differential scanning calorimetry. Food Research International 41(7), 751-757.

Ardakani, H. A., Mitsoulis, E., & Hatzikiriakos, S. G. (2014). Capillary flow of milk chocolate. Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics 210, 56-65.

Awad, T. S., & Marangoni, A. G. (2006). Ingredient Interactions Affecting Texture and Microstructure of Confectionery Chocolate. In Gaonkar, A. G., & McPherson, A. (2nd ed., 423-476). Ingredient interactions: Effects on Food Quality. Florida, America: CRC Press.

Briggs, J. L., & Wang, T. (2004). Influence of shearing and time on the rheological properties of milk chocolate during tempering. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society 81(2), 117-121.

Chevalley, J. (1975). Rheology of chocolate. Journal of Texture Studies 6(2), 177-196.

Do, T. A. L., Hargreaves, J. M., Wolf, B., Hort, J., & Mitchell, J. R. (2007). Impact of particle size distribution on rheological and textural properties of chocolate models with reduced fat content. Journal of Food Science 72(9), E541-E552.

Full, N. A., Reddy, S. Y., Dimick, P. S., & Ziegler, G. R. (1996). Physical and sensory properties of milk chocolate formulated with anhydrous milk fat fractions. Journal of Food Science 61(5), 1068-1073.

Gabriele, D., Migliori, M., Baldino, N., & De Cindio, B. (2008). Influence of fat content on chocolate rheology. AIP Conference Proceedings 1027. Maryland, America: American Institute of Physics.

Gala, U., Pham, H., & Chauhan, H. (2013). Pharmaceutical applications of eutectic mixtures. Journal of Developing Drugs 2(3), e130.

Gao, X., Guo, T., Han, F., Tian, Y., & Zhang, Z. (2015). Rheological and sensory properties of four kinds of dark chocolates. American Journal of Analytical Chemistry 6(13), 1010-1018.

Glicerina, V., Balestra, F., Rosa, M. D., & Romani, S. (2016). Microstructural and rheological characteristics of dark, milk and white chocolate: A comparative study. Journal of Food Engineering 169, 165-171.

Liang, B., & Hartel, R. W. (2004). Effects of milk powders in milk chocolate. Journal of Dairy Science 87(1), 20-31.

Limbardo, R. P., Santoso, H., & Witono, J. R. (2017). The effect of coconut oil and palm oil as substituted oils to cocoa butter on chocolate bar texture and melting point. AIP Conference Proceedings 1840(1), 060001. Maryland, America: American Institute of Physics.

Mochizuki, Y. (2001). Texture Profile Analysis. Current Protocols in Food Analytical Chemistry 00(1), H2.3.1–H2.3.7.

Rios, R. V., Pessanha, M. D. F., de Almeida, P. F., Viana, C. L., & da Silva Lannes, S. C. (2014). Application of fats in some food products. Food Science and Technology (Campinas) 34(1), 3-15.

Rodrigo, B., Anikumar, G. G., Antonio, B., Ignacio, G. L., David, P., & Manuel, M. (2005). Production of cocoa butter microcapsules using an electrospray process. Journal of Food Science 70(8), e492-e497.

Sokmen, A., & Gunes, G. (2006). Influence of some bulk sweeteners on rheological properties of chocolate. LWT - Food Science and Technology 39(10), 1053-1058.

Timms, R. E. (1980). The phase behaviour of mixtures of cocoa butter and milk fat. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und -Technologie 13(2), 61-65.