Loan P. Phan * , & Tu V. Nguyen

* Correspondence: Phan Phuong Loan (email:

Main Article Content


The aim of this study was to assess the efficiency of Nile and red tilapia cultured in intensive systems applied a combination of biofloc technology (BFT) and probiotics in earthen ponds with different methods to control the off-flavor problem. A growing-out experiment was conducted for 150 days in which both Nile tilapia (5.88 ± 0.59 g) and red tilapia (9.72 ± 0.72 g) fingerlings were randomly allotted into three replicates of earthen ponds which were subdivided into four treatment groups, including: off-flavor controlled by algae management in Nile tilapia ponds (NT - AM) and red tilapia ponds (RT - AM), and off-flavor controlled by active water exchange in Nile tilapia ponds (NT - WE) and red tilapia ponds (RT - WE). The results showed that water quality was maintained in suitable ranges for fish growth. There were no significant differences in growth performance (final weight, daily weight gain and specific growth rate) among all treatments (P < 0.05). Feed conversion ratio of Nile tilapia (1.28 - 1.31) was significantly lower than that of red tilapia (1.35 - 1.37) (P < 0.05). The survival ratio (about 80%) and extrapolated yield (21.50 tons/ha in 150 days) of fish was similar and high for both Nile and red tilapia. The quality of the harvested fish in term of condition factor, size even and off-flavor intensity was also excellent. The economic efficiency of red tilapia farming in this system was higher as compared to cage systems. This study clearly demonstrated that the technique of combined BFT and probiotic application in earthen ponds could contribute to the sustainable development of tilapia production in Vietnam by reducing production cost, saving water resource and avoiding environmental pollution.

Keywords: Biofloc technology (BFT), Earthen pond, Efficiency, Probiotic application, Tilapia culture

Article Details


Aly, S. M., Abd-El-Rahman, A. M., John, G., & Mohamed, M. F. (2008). Characterization of some bacteria isolated from Oreochromis niloticus and their potential use as probiotics. Aquaculture 277(1-2), 1-6.

APHA (American Public Health Association). (1995). Standard methods for the examination for water and wastewater (19th ed.). Washington, DC, USA: American Public Health Association.

Balarin, J. D., & Haller, R. D. (1982). The intensive culture of tilapia in tanks, raceways and cages. In Muir, J. F., & Roberts, R. J. (Eds.). Recent advances in aquaculture (266-355). London, UK: Croom Helm.

Coldebella, A., Gentelini, A. L., Piana, P. A., Coldebella, P. F., Boscolo, W. R., & Feiden, A. (2018). Effluents from fish farming ponds: A view from the perspective of its main components. Sustainability 10(1), 3.

Crab, R., Defoirdt, T., Bossier, P., & Verstraete, W. (2012). Biofloc technology in aquaculture: Beneficial effects and future challenges. Aquaculture 356-357, 351-356.

Cruz, P. M., Ibánez, A. L., Hermosillo, O. A. M., & Saad, H. C. R. (2012). Use of probiotics in aquaculture. International Scholarly Research Network 2012.

Dauda, A. B., Folorunso, L. A., & Dasuki, A. (2013). Use of probiotics for sustainable aquaculture production in Nigeria. Journal of Agriculture and Social Research 13(2), 35-45.

Dawood, M. A. O., & Koshio, S. (2016). Recent advances in the role of probiotics and prebiotics in carp aquaculture: A review. Aquaculture 454, 243-251.

De Schryver, P., Crab, R., Defoirdt, T., Boon, N., & Verstraete, W. (2008). The basics of bio-flocs technology: The added value for aquaculture. Aquaculture 277(3-4), 125-137.

De Silva, S. S., & Anderson, T. A. (1994). Fish nutrition in aquaculture. London, UK: Chapman & Hall.

De Silva, S. S., Subasinghe, R. P., Bartley, D. M., & Lowther, A. (2004). Tilapias as alien aquatics in Asia and the Pacific: A review (FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 453). Rome, Italy: FAO.

Do, X. V. (2010). Economic analysis of cropping system: The case study of Cai Lay district, Tien Giang province. Can Tho University Journal of Science 13, 113-119.

FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations). (2020). The state of world fisheries and aquaculture 2020. Rome, Italy: FAO.

Fitzsimmons, K. (2008). Food safety, quality control in tilapia product. Global Aquaculture Advocate, 42-44. Retrieved February 1, 2022, from

GSO (General Statistics Office of Vietnam). (2021). Statistical data on fisheries. Ha Noi, Vietnam: GSO.

Le, V. Q., Tran, G. V., Chu, A. M., & Tran, H. N. (2016). Applying biofloc techniques to culture tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) at different salinities. Can Tho University Journal of Science 46, 80-86.

MARD (Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development). (2017). National technical regulation No. 02-26:2017/MARD for tilapia culture farm – technical requirement for veterinary hygiene, environmental protection and food safety. Ha Noi, Vietnam: MARD.

MARD (Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development). (2016). Decision No. 1639/QD-BNN-TCTS approved tilapia development plan to 2020, oriented to 2030. Retrieved from February 20, 2022, from

Mehrara, E., Forssell-Aronsson, E., Ahlman, H., & Bernhardt, P. (2009). Quantitative analysis of tumor growth rate and changes in tumor marker level: Specific growth rate versus doubling time. Acta Oncologica 48(4), 591-597.

Ng, W. K., & Romano, N. (2013). A review of the nutrition and feeding management of farmed tilapia throughout the culture cycle. Reviews in Aquaculture 5(4), 220-254.

Nguyen, D. C., Tran, L. D., Bui, C. H., Nguyen, C. V., Le, T. H., Nguyen, H. V., Nguyen S. V., Dinh, T. T., Pham, K. D., & Dinh, H. V. (2006). Improving tilapia production techniques obtaining high quality and criteria for export (Project report). Research Institute for Aquaculture No. 1, Nha Trang, Vietnam.

Nguyen, H. T. (2012). Study on application of biofloc technology (nitrogen-carbon balancing) in commercially intensive culture of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) (Unpublished master’s thesis). Agriculture University (former), Ha Noi, Vietnam.

Nguyen, T. V., Nguyen, T. D., Nguyen, K. A., Nguyen, H. V., Nguyen, H. D., & Nguyen, T. T. (2004). Study on technology of intensive culture of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Northern Viet Nam (Project report). Research Institute for Aquaculture No. 1, Nha Trang, Vietnam.

Nguyen, T. V., Vo, S. H., Nguyen, N. T., Nguyen, K. X., Nguyen, T. T. B., Nguyen, H. T., & Le, K. V. (2013). Application of biofloc technology in intensive culture of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Northern Vietnam. Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development, 154-161.

Phan, L. P., Nguyen, H. T. T., & Nguyen, T. L. (2021). Impacts of different methods on water quality management on growth performance and quality of tilapia intensively cultured in earthen ponds. Livestock Research for Rural Development 33(10), 1-9.

Phan, V. V. N. (2015). Study on current status of red tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) cultured in cages in Thoi Son islet, Chau Thanh district, Tien Giang province (Unpublished bachelor’s thesis). Tay Do University, Can Tho city, Vietnam.

Tran, V. V. (2016). Evaluating the status of red tilapia (Oreochromis spp) in cage culture in Tien river upstream of Vinh Long province. Can Tho University Journal of Science 47, 110-118.

Watanabe, W. O., Losordo, T. M., Fitzsimmons, K., & Hanley, F. (2002). Tilapia production systems in the Americas: Technological advances, trends, and challenges. Reviews in Fisheries Science 10(3), 465-498.

Yue, G. H., Lin, H. R., & Li, J. L. (2016). Tilapia is the fish for next generation aquaculture. International Journal of Marine Science and Ocean Technology 3(1), 11-13.

Zhou, X., Tian, Z., Wang, Y., & Li, W. (2010). Effect of treatment with probiotics as water additives on tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) growth performance and immune response. Fish Physiology Biochemistry 36(3), 501-509.